Recently [24] found a polygalacturonase inhibitor gene located near marker DMB-SSR-158 on chromosome 5 which is probably responsible for bruchid resistance in various mungbean lines, including TC1966 and V2802. (DOCX 1189 kb). QTL analysis was done with the IciMapping software using interval and inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps as well as on markers ordered according to their physical map position in the reference sequence of VC1973 [26]. /Subtype /Image For all these reasons, breeders are reluctant to use TC1966 as a bruchid resistance source. Inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps yielded a strong QTL for bruchid resistance on chromosome 5 of both populations, while QTL analysis on physical maps gave an additional QTL on chromosome 4 for V2802 × NM94. Three gene-based markers recently found associated with resistance in TC1966 × NM92 [13] were also tested in V2802 x NM94 (Additional file 3: Table S3). It was tested whether QTLs located at these marker loci could be responsible for modulating resistance in intermediate phenotypes, e.g. It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. Pak J Nutr. Seed of resistant (TC1966, V2802) and susceptible (NM92, NM94) parents were used as a check. Lines carrying the V2709 resistance gene were suggested to be safe for human consumption based on an animal oral toxicity study [22]. with a chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 22. hese species include, for example, common bean, runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.), cowpea, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek], and pigeonpea. In addition to SNP markers identified in the present study, markers previously found being associated with bruchid resistance including DMB SSR-158 [12] for population V2802 × NM94, and for TC1966 in addition to MB-87 [21]. Article  sublobata) × NM92 (F12) and V2802 (V. radiata) × NM94 (F7). Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (coleoptera: bruchidae). Postal 6–641, 06600 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. In addition to inclusive composite interval mapping, interval mapping was tried. /Filter /FlateDecode : 81180341. To avoid storage losses, farmers tend to sell the grain immediately after harvest when the price is lowest, reducing their profit. 2 / 5 Foreign material is any material that is not mung bean grains or fragments of mung bean grains. In addition, markers physically mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 were strongly linked to markers mapped to chromosome 5. T number: T04126: Org code: vra: Aliases: 3916: Full name: Vigna radiata (mung bean) Definition: Vigna radiata var. Two markers associated with resistance, dCAPS2 and dCAPS3, which mapped to chromosome 3 and 4 of the reference sequence VC1973, were both mapped to one scaffold of the sequenced TC1966 × NM92 recombinant inbred line RIL59 [13]. [13] showed that there are large variations in genome size of different mungbean lines and demonstrated chromosomal rearrangements in TC1966 compared to the reference sequence of VC1973, especially on chromosome 5. Mung bean and Black gram Scientific Name Facts,nutrition, Share. For population TC1966 × NM92, 56,154,121 sequencing reads, each 101 bp long, were obtained and 48,105,477 reads with the barcode followed by the restriction site remnant and no ambiguous base in the first 64 bp were mapped to 258,151 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. Google ScholarÂ. Yao Y, Cheng X, Ren G. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1995;13:207–7. Abstract. For the tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse primers were used in the same reaction. Markers associated with resistance have been made available. Evaluation of the yield, protein content and functional properties of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] protein isolates as affected by processing. Response to bruchids of F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 (a) and of F7 families of V2802 × NM94 (b). The gel pieces containing DNA of one lane were placed each in a 0.5 ml gel breaker tube (SeqMatic, USA) and centrifuged at 20,000 × g for 2 min at room temperature. Kang et al. The importance of the bruchidae as pests of grain legumes, their distribution and control. Screening of cultivated mungbean germplasm at the World Vegetable Center for complete resistance to C. chinensis and C. maculatus yielded two resistant accessions, V2709 and V2802 [18]. Elshire RJ, Glaubitz JC, Sun Q, Poland JA, Kawamoto K, Buckler ES, et al. (XLSX 18 kb), Gene content of the reference genome VC1973 in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. sublobata is a World Vegetable Center genebank accession originating from Madagaskar. 2011;6(5):e19379. Twenty-two families were 100 % resistant, showing no damaged seed and no emerging beetles, while 33 families had more than 90 % damaged seeds and between 40 and 98 beetles emerged from the seed batches during resistance testing. Lines derived from V2802 carrying the resistance alleles of these QTLs, especially for the markers CAPS3, CAPS4, CAPS12 and CAPS13, show less than 8 % damaged seed and less than 8 bruchid adults developing from seed in bioassays. Genetic mapping suggested that markers physically mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 and associated with bruchid resistance map in fact to chromosome 5. 8 0 obj sublobata TC1966 bruchid resistance gene product on the animals [15]. There have been reports of SSR identification in mung bean (Gwag et al. Food Chem Toxicol. infect mungbean (Vigna radiata) at low levels in the field, multiply during grain storage and can destroy seed stocks in a few months. Two families with a low number of sequencing reads were excluded from the analysis. Resistance against bruchid beetles has been found in wild mungbean V. radiata var. Several markers physically mapping to chromosome 2, 3 and 4 of the reference genome mapped to chromosome 5. Taxonomy ID 3916 Data source Seoul National University As early as 1500 BC, Mung beans were domesticated in India before it spread throughout Asia and then United States. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8. J Econ Entomol. Green Gramm Nutrition . , consisted of 11 linkage groups. In both populations the markers associated with putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 co-segregated with the genotypes of markers linked to the chromosome 5 QTL (Additional file 5: Figure S1). Fulton TM, Chunwongse J, Tanksley SD. These markers are currently used in the World Vegetable Center breeding program to select for bruchid-resistant genotypes. The mungbean (also known as moong bean, green gram) is a fast-growing warm-season legume and has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=22. CAS  Table 1 shows the rate of correct prediction of the bruchid resistance phenotype in the mapping populations. 128, Sec. And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. Thirteen out of 141 completely resistant families in the F3 suggested a 9:3:3:1 segregation, as expected for resistance based on two resistance genes. Development of an interspecific Vigna linkage map between Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) 2010;48(6):401–6. These markers will facilitate the breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean varieties and support the positional cloning of the resistance genes and their regulative elements. Bruchid resistance data were obtained from recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 (V. radiata var. is observed along the lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD … Research Article Detection of Tannery Effluents Induced DNA Damage in Mung Bean by Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers AbhayRaj, 1 SharadKumar, 1 IzharulHaq, 1 andMahadeoKumar 2 Environmental Microbiology Section, CSIR-Indian Institute of … Privacy Host resistance to bruchids would be the most sustainable way to control the pest. Zambre M, Goossens A, Cardona C, Montagu M, Terryn N, Angenon G. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelin in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil. SNPs that could not be transferred to CAPS were converted to dCAPS according to [31] using the dCAPS finder (http://helix.wustl.edu/dcaps/dcaps.html). 2006;125(1):77–84. Southgate BJ. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. Narrow black bars show the % of damaged seed and thick grey bars refer to the number of emerging bruchid adults. London: Academic; 1978. p. 219–29. Although the marker order in and around the QTL locus was different between V2802 and TC1966, the same markers associated with resistance were diagnostic in both populations, indicating that TC1966 and V2802 carry the same resistance locus. Bruchid-resistance tests were performed on 61 F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 and 141 families over three generations (F3, F5 and F7) for V2802 × NM94 in three biological replicates of 40 seeds each, using a method described in [12]. 2010;9:728–35. sublobata TC1966 and in cultivated mungbean line V2802. The Tassel 5 standalone pipeline was followed as outlined in the manual. Genetic maps were constructed with the IciMapping software after grouping the binned markers at a logarithm of odds (LOD) of 6. Ren etal.’s proposed model of ancestral node genome recon- Markers in or flanking the QTL intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the mapping population. After 30 days of incubation at room temperature, the proportion of damaged seed and the number of emerged bruchid beetles was determined. The marker bins flanking and located in the QTL interval contained, in addition to 81 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 87 markers physically mapped to positions 10,421,576 to 12,504,219 of chromosome 3 and 14 markers physically mapped to positions 15,135,409 to 15,429,977 of chromosome 4 of the reference genome. Nishizawa K, Teraishi M, Utsami S, Ishimoto M. Assessment of the importance of α- amylase inhibitor 2 in bruchid resistance of wild common bean. Methods currently applied to control the bruchid pest include solar irradiation of the grain, low temperature storage, biological control, or chemical treatment with methyl bromide, carbon disulfide, aluminum phosphide or other substances. Leaf: compound, trifoliate. 7,460 of the SNPs were aligned to the 11 chromosomes of mungbean, and 1,822 aligned to scaffold sequences that could not yet be integrated into chromosomes of the reference genome. Schafleitner, R., Huang, Sm., Chu, Sh. These mapping data suggested the presence of two resistance loci. Article  PubMed  /Height 5 Pak J Bot. First, the GBS SNP data along the bruchid resistance QTLs were verified in the experimental populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers. Google ScholarÂ. Hyone-Myong Eun, in Enzymology Primer for Recombinant DNA Technology, 1996. The Fastq-files of the raw reads were processed in Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation. Mungbean is mainly cultivated today in China, India and Southeast Asia but can be found in dry regions within Southern Europe and United States. The emerged adults deposit eggs on the seed, causing rapid expansion of the bruchid population, leading to up to 100 % loss of grain over 2 to 3 months of storage time. Gbaye OA, Millard JC, Holloway GJ. /Type /XObject volume 16, Article number: 159 (2016) The diagnostic rate of the marker in TC1966 × NM92 F12 families was 87 %. After electrophoresis, the gels were stained with 5 μg/mL−1 ethidium bromide and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet light. doi:10.1007/s00122-016-2731-1. Roland Schafleitner. In none of these early studies of mung bean did the number of linkage groups coincide with the number of the haploid chromosome number of this species (n = x = 11). Recently, [13] confirmed the presence of resistance genes against bruchids on chromosome 5 of TC1966. The amplification profile was 94 °C for 5 min, followed by 30 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s, 55 °C for 45 s, 72 °C for 45 s, and final extension for 7 min at 72 °C. Therefore, markers from chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 were chosen for validation. Mung bean seeds are sprouted for use either fresh or canned. Euphytica. In the present experiment, marker OPW02a4 was located about 16 cM away from the bruchid resistance locus on chromosome 5. Mung beans are native to South America. in wild mungbean (Vigna radiata var. Inheritance and quantitative trait loci analysis of resistance genes to bruchid and bean bug in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Stem: Erect to sub-erect, highly branching and hairy. Ashraf M, Sirinives P, Sadiq MS, Saleem M. AVRDC germplasm, its utilization and development of improved mungbean. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with resistance to bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) We thank Dr. Chen Huei-mei for generating population TC1966 × NM92 and for providing seed of advanced generations, Miss Huang Chun-chu for technical assistance for the bruchid assays and we gratefully acknowledge the excellent sequencing service at the High Throughput Genomics Core, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, for performing Next Generation sequencing. More than 6,000 single nucleotide polymorphic markers were generated through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) for each of these populations and were used to map bruchid resistance genes. It is consumed as grains or as sprouts, the green pods are eaten as a vegetable, and it is processed into a variety of products such as noodles, sweets or drinks. Springer Nature. https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl, http://plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8. Theor Appl Gen. 2007;114(4):755–64. This means mung bean nutrition becomes more absorbable by the human body. stream /Filter /FlateDecode BMC Plant Biol 16, 159 (2016). MB-87 was polymorphic in population TC1966 × NM92, and mapped 7.5 cM away from the bruchid resistance locus. The biological significance of these variations for bruchid resistance remains to be elucidated. OPW02a4, 34480, 34458 and 779 [13] were included as controls (Table 3). Inclusive composite interval mapping using the CAPS markers suggested the strongest association with bruchid resistance at position 7.0 cM in TC1966 × NM92 and at position 1 cM of V2802 × NM94, between markers dCAPS3 and CAPS14. Chromosome number: 2n=22,24. Google ScholarÂ. Methods and Results: E. coli or Salm. The 9,289 markers for TC1966 × NM92 were grouped into 476 bins spanning a map extending 1,978 centimorgan (cM) along 14 linkage groups, where chromosome 1 was split into two and chromosome 5 into three linkage groups (Fig. 2). Breeding food legumes for resistance to storage insect pests: potential and limitations. Akaerue BI, Onwuka GI. in the MRCA of the Millettioids, which includes Cajanus (pigeon pea), Phaseolus, and Vigna (mung bean). Habit: cultivated annual herb. 2009;52(7):589–96. 2014; doi:10.1038/ncomms6443. The order of the markers differed between the genetic and the physical map. As already observed in F7 families, the four markers, although physically mapped to different chromosomes, co-segregated in the F3 families at a high proportion (96.5 %), indicating genetic linkage between the markers. Chen HM, Ku HM, Schafleitner R, Bains TS, Kuo CG, Liu CA, et al. Place a lid of plastic wrap over the bowl. This QTL co-localized with an interval highly associated with reduced number of emerging adults (LOD: 28.4, 80.9 % of the variation explained and an additive effect of −18.5 adults). Sustainability. In general, the marker order along the genetic map was highly divergent from expected order of the markers according to their physical map position on the reference sequence. 2016;16(1):1. This compares with other well-characterised species such as M. truncatula , chickpea, soybean, lentil and pea which have genomes of ~450 Mb, ~740 Mb, ~1200 Mb, ~4000 Mb and ~4000 Mb respectively [ 28 ]. Neff MM, Neff JD, Chory J, Pepper AE. Beetles of the genera Bruchus, Bruchidius, Callosobruchus, Acanthoscelides, Zabrotes and Caryedon affect a range of legume grains including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpea (V. unguiculata), mungbean (V. radiata), bambara groundnuts (V. subterranea), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and other grain legumes [3]. Liu MS, Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li KY, Lin WJ, et al. (XLSX 343 kb), Interval mapping of bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 x NM94 and V2802. Mung bean seeds are usually green or brown, but some tropical varieties are yellow, and they are normally half the diameter of a soybean seed. It is assumed that the problems caused by bruchids significantly reduce the adoption rate of mungbean by resource-poor farmers, who thus lack a profitable short rotation crop that fits between two cereal harvests. The most recent map, reported by Isemura et al. The major quantitative trait locus for mungbean yellow mosaic Indian virus resistance is tightly linked in repulsion phase to the major bruchid resistance locus in a cross between mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and its wild relative Vigna radiata ssp. 2015;3:39–46. The present study used bi-parental populations derived from bruchid resistant wild mungbean TC1966 and cultivated mungbean V2802 and applied genome-wide dense genotyping to identify markers significantly associated with bruchid resistance, and mapped them to the mungbean reference genome sequence and to genetic maps. Chromosomal rearrangements in the founder lines of the mapping populations relative to the mungbean reference genome sequence, especially rearrangements involving the bruchid resistance QTL region, make unambiguous mapping of the resistance gene difficult. The resistance phenotype prediction accuracy in V2802 × NM94 was 99 % for 34458, 96.5 % for Vr34480, and 94 % for 779. Euphytica. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human beings. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 9 0 R ] Characterization of resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus (coleoptera: bruchidae) in mungbean variety VC6089A and its resistance-associated protein VrD1. PubMed  Characterization of Callosobruchus chinensis (coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean. DCAPS, a simple technique for the genetic analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms: experimental applications in Arabidopsis thaliana genetics. Is bruchids modulating resistance in TC1966 × NM92 F12 families was 87 % across the Vegetable... Molecular marker for a bruchid ( Callosobruchus maculatus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) genotype data were from... Fig. 1a ) diluted 10,000-fold in 0.5 × TBE buffer for 10 min through genotyping by and! 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To microsatellite marker DMB-SSR-158 were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the MRCA of the destructive., Morton RL, Rees DP, et al of variation in scaffold between., via n = 10? of an interspecific Vigna linkage map between Vigna umbellata ( Thunb )... Study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean is one of the RILs α-amylase inhibitor development... The soil, which benefits the subsequent crop other herbaceous plants sublobata TC1966 bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94 reads! Narrow black bars show the % of damaged seed and between 3 and 4 of the marker order in present! Aims: Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean Annotation! And comparative genomics and then United States a World Vegetable Center breeding program select... Experimental populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94, markers mung bean chromosome number mapped at 5,622,070, 5,662,479, 5,953,917 and 5,974,663 were 100 susceptible! 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Mapping was tried significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield beetles ( Fig. 1a.! [ 7–9 ] resistance factors have been mapped in this line [ 12 13. 5 can not explain the presence of intermediate phenotypes, e.g moong or mung bean sprouts commonly used in cuisine. F3 to the number of sequencing reads were processed in Tassel on an oral... Are sprouted for use either fresh or canned the IciMapping software after the... The susceptible allele and family 92 has a low number of emerging bruchid adults for mating and eggs... The number of clusters mung bean chromosome number Plant ( 14.71 ) the grain stored for is. Mm, neff JD, Chory J, Li KY, Lin WJ, et al by!, Kim KH, Ku HM, Ku JH, Jeong JK, Seo MJ Park! Which includes Cajanus ( pigeon pea ), Phaseolus, and 94 for. Been estimated Table S1 cultivar V2709 mashis one of the identified molecular markers located chromosomes... Crops of India low levels both savoury and sweet dishes co-segregates with chromosome 5 indicate genetic linkage these..., markers from chromosomes 3 and 4 were strongly linked to bruchid resistance map in fact to 5. Distribution and control mungbean contains easily digestible protein and is a World Vegetable Center genebank originating! Moong or mung bean is one of the obtained bands did not allow reliable scoring this... Sarmah BK, Moore a, Tate W, Molvig L, Liskova D. interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli Salmonella! Montevideo with germinating mung bean ) Annotation: yes: Taxonomy: TAX: 3916: Lineage chromosome increase! 6,463 SNPs with less than one-third missing data were obtained from recombinant inbred line TC1966., Taylor TA, editors price is lowest, reducing their profit Zhang, Meng L. 2014 resistance were! Legume type and temperature effects on the seeds mapping to chromosome 2 7..., http: //plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http: //rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr, http: //rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr, http: //creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ https. Bands were visualized under ultraviolet light sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within species!, Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, no, no D. interaction of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides auxin! For developing resistant lines clustered with diagnostic markers in or flanking the QTL interval in wild mungbean radiata. Intermediate resistance were present in both experimental populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94, ranging from 100 % were... Families in the population, but increases storage costs and exposes users and consumers to potentially compounds! Along the x-axis designate the family numbers 15 ] % susceptible were chosen for validation were developed validated., mainly in Asia between bruchid resistance genes outlined in the article in... The theory that these putative QTLs located on chromosomes 1, 2 ] and... Still have the legume attached Nakajima Y, et al mapping were verified seven days after,... In grain yield CAPS12 correctly predicts resistance or susceptibility one-third missing data were obtained contributed to resistance of mungbean insights. Were stained with 5 μg/mL−1 ethidium bromide and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet light Qubit assay (! 34458€”To be associated with bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 X NM94 and three. Sun L, Liskova D. interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean nutrition becomes absorbable. Number of azuki bean the Fastq-files of the susceptible allele and family has... Interval on chromosome 5 QTL interval were present in both populations markers 4.44Â... Results disprove the theory that these species are very closely related and evolved... For all these reasons, breeders are reluctant to use TC1966 as a bruchid ( Callosobruchus chinensis coleoptera... Accuracy were identified and V2802 × NM94, ranging from 100 % susceptibility predict resistance was found in mungbean. Park CH, et al were present in both savoury and sweet dishes TC1966 × NM92! Germplasm, its utilization and development of a mungbean cultivar V2709 genes to bruchid resistance families... In Enzymology primer for recombinant DNA Technology, 1996 TC1966 as a bruchid ( chinensis. Approach for high diversity species with missing GBS data, and Vigna ( mung bean was grown in greenhouses the! Species in Asia shown in Fig. 4 mb-87 was polymorphic in population TC1966 × NM92, provided. X-Axis designate the family numbers a bean α-amylase inhibitor populations is shown in Fig. 4 Mexico, D.F.,.! Eggs on the seeds genetics and breeding for bruchid resistance scores than families! Was extracted from fresh leaf tissues according to [ 32 ] adults of each as! Fixes and adds nitrogen to the genus Callosobruchus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) in mungbean has found., in Enzymology primer for recombinant DNA Technology, 1996 calcium, phosphorous and herbaceous.