[23], Scharnhorst in harbor; the thickness of the armour belt is easily seen, The Scharnhorst-class ships were equipped with Krupp armour. They were known as the "Twin Sisters" partly because of the fact that they did almost everything together … [18], Scharnhorst and Gneisenau had reached a point north-west of Lofoten, Norway, by 12:00 on 9 April. The two ships were laid down in 1935, launched in late 1936, and commissioned into the German fleet by early 1939. The German force quickly fled north before using inclement weather to make the dash south through the North Sea. She managed to add 5,000 m (5,500 yd) to the distance between her and Duke of York, while straddling the ship with several salvos. Vice Admiral Otto Ciliax, Scharnhorst's first commander, was given command of the operation. The strategic position following the damage to Scharnhorst was serious. Scharnhorst demands to be driven like a battleship, but her guns thrive when used as heavy cruiser guns. The destroyers Scorpion and HNoMS Stord launched a total of eight torpedoes at 18:50, four of which hit. The other seven made it past the air defenses and attacked Scharnhorst, but only scored one hit, and the bomb failed to detonate. The destroyers laid a smoke screen in an attempt to hide the carrier, but the Germans quickly closed the distance. The mine briefly knocked out the power system and temporarily disabled the rudders. A severe storm off Bergen forced the destroyers to seek shelter but Scharnhorst was able to continue on at the reduced speed of 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph). Scharnhorst class battleship. To secure political freedom to build the new ships, Hitler concluded the 1935 Anglo-German Naval Agreement, which guaranteed Great Britain a 3 to 1 superiority in capital ships, and, more importantly, removed the limitations of the Treaty of Versailles for the German navy. Both ships had a Krupp armor belt, 150 mm (5.9 in) thick (center), decreasing to 80 mm (3.1 in) on both end of the citadel, down to nothing on ends, and backed with teak planking. At standard displacement of 32,100 long tons (32,600 t), which reduced draft to 8.3 m (27 ft), while at a full combat load of 38,100 long tons (38,700 t), draft increased to 9.9 m (32 ft). The Scharnhorst class was a class of German battleships (or battlecruisers) built immediately prior to World War II.The first capital ships of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, it comprised two vessels: Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. Gretel Class Heavy Destroyer. Admiral Hipper and the destroyers were sent to destroy Orama, a 19,500 long tons (19,800 t) passenger ship, while Atlantis, a hospital ship, was allowed to proceed unmolested. The central portion of the belt was backed by 170 mm (6.7 in) thick shields. Scharnhorst … [lower-alpha 3], The Treaty of Versailles, which established the terms concluding World War I, restricted German naval shipbuilding to warships displacing no more than 10,000 long tons (11,000 short tons). The British carried out a series of attacks that were all unsuccessful; Scharnhorst's anti-aircraft guns were red-hot by the end of the action, and one 20 mm gun had burst from the strain. [24] After approximately an hour of shooting, the German battleships sent Glorious to the bottom. The first went through each deck and exited the ship through the double bottom, while the other was deflected by the torpedo bulkhead and penetrated the hull beneath the side belt armor. Plans to replace th… Three of the bombs were 454 kg (1,001 lb) armor-piercing bombs, and the other two were 227 kg (500 lb) high-explosive bombs. For 6 months, fuel shortages curtailed any major operations by Scharnhorst or the other ships in Norway,[51] which included the Bismarck-class Tirpitz and the heavy cruiser Lützow. 06-09 March 1943: Operation Paderborn.In favourable weather Scharnhorst succeeds in breaking out and is finally trasferred from Germany to Narvik where she is to join the battleship Tirpitz and the heavy cruiser Lützow (ex-Deutschland).. 09-23 March 1943: Anchored at Bogen Bay near Narvik. SMS Scharnhorst was the flagship of German Vice-Admiral Maximilian Graf von Spee's East Asia Squadron. These rescue operations were interrupted by the appearance of the cruiser Newcastle. On 22 February, the pair spotted an empty convoy sailing west, which dispersed at the appearance of the battleships. While Scharnhorst was en route under heavy escort on 21 June, the British launched two air attacks, six Swordfish torpedo bombers in the first and nine Beaufort bombers in the second. Lütjens ordered Hoffmann to rejoin the flagship immediately. Her characteristics are very cruiser-like: top speed above 30 knots with a decent rudder shift time, plus a smaller-caliber main battery than other battleships that trades alpha damage and penetration for good rate of fire and muzzle … Lütjens' orders prohibited him from engaging Allied capital ships, and so the attack was called off. Afterward, another round of trials were conducted in the Baltic, which revealed the necessity of replacing several of the boiler tubes. In his instructions to Bey, Dönitz advised him to break off the engagement if presented with superior forces, but to remain aggressive. At 15:31, Scharnhorst struck a magnetic mine, which damaged the ship's circuit breakers enough to shut down the entire electrical system. [53] The ship was to operate only with five destroyers; Tirpitz had been damaged in a British raid in September, and Lützow was away for periodic repairs. Jane's Fighting Ships 1940 lists both the Scharnhorst and Bismarck classes as "Battleships (Schlachtschiffe)" Another adversary, the United … The ship was built at the Kriegsmarinewerft dockyard in Wilhelmshaven; she was laid down on 15 June 1935 and launched a year and four months later on 3 October 1936. The Germans reached Wilhelmshaven on 27 November, and on the trip both battleships incurred significant damage from heavy seas and winds. [58] Shortly before 17:00, the British ships closed it: Belfast again illuminated the ship with star shells, while Duke of York fired salvos from her main battery. It was extremely strong amidships, but weakened on either end of the citadel. Survivors Picked Up by the Home Fleet From the Scharnhorst After Her Sinking on 26 December 1943, Being Taken Ashore. The modifications were completed by November 1939, by which time the ship was finally fully operational. At 17:03, Scharnhorst opened fire, and three minutes later a salvo of her 28 cm guns hit Rawalpindi's bridge, killing the captain Edward Coverly Kennedy, and the majority of the officers. Hansel Class Heavy Destroyer. This in turn prompted the German Navy to begin plans for a more powerful battlecruiser design. At 16:00 on 14 March, Scharnhorst dropped anchor in Bogen Bay outside Narvik. Once there, conversion work began: the wrecked bow was removed and her "B" and "C" turrets were removed and disassembled for transport. In late 1942, Gneisenau was heavily damaged in an Allied air raid against Kiel. The Scharnhorst class was the last traditional class of armored cruisers built by the Kaiserliche Marine.The class comprised two ships, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau.They were larger than the Roon-class cruisers that preceded them; the extra size was used primarily to increase the main armament of 21 cm (8.2 inch) guns from four to eight. The blast also damaged the fuel oil pumps and the bearings in the turbo-generators, which brought the ship to a halt. [29] Scharnhorst managed to sink only one ship during the encounter, the 6000 ton tanker Lustrous. They were expected to fire 1,100 rounds before barrel wear made repair or replacement necessary. [67] Fraser then ordered Jamaica and Belfast to move into range and finish the crippled ship off with torpedoes. [70], Coordinates: 72°16′N 28°41′E / 72.267°N 28.683°E / 72.267; 28.683, Scharnhorst-class battleship of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, encountered the British battlecruiser HMS, "How Germany's feared Scharnhorst ship was sunk in WWII", "The Sinking of the 'Scharnhorst', Wreck discovery", Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in December 1943, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_battleship_Scharnhorst&oldid=999505695, World War II shipwrecks in the Arctic Ocean, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 14:58. Another 300 t (300 long tons; 330 short tons) tons of water flooded ten watertight spaces in four main compartments. [28] Severe storms caused damage to Gneisenau but Scharnhorst was undamaged. 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