In 1857 Lieutenant Ives, sent by the War … At that time, the band was led by a Portuguese don, seconded by a Spaniard. When Spanish and American exploration reached the western United Sates, the people of the Mormon civilizations in the Utah territory claimed the territorial rights of the entire Great Basin and the Colorado watershed. The arid semidesert environment needed creative innovation in terms of water usage, crops, and livestock-raising techniques. The Mojaves first appear in the written record in the records of a Spanish expedition from New Mexico led by Juan de Onate in 1604, seeking the "southern sea". This expedition led some of his men to the Colorado River. Juan de Zaldivar enters the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The river was originally named in 1776 by Spanish explorer and priest Silvestre Velez de Escalante during his journey from Santa Fe to seek a route to the west coast, but long before the Spaniards “found” and named the river, native Americans had lived in the region. John Wesley Powell was a geologist whose studies of rocks in Colorado and Wyoming sparked his interest in exploring the unknown canyon of the Colorado River. Marching northward with seventy-five men, he found mud pueblos inhabited by Native Americans. In 1605, Juan de Oñate, who had founded New Mexico in 1598, led an expedition west from there to the Colorado River. In a 1952 publication, historian Herbert Bolton places the encounter in eastern Kansas. Spain traces its claim to what is now the Southwestern United States to the 1540 Coronado expedition, which explored much of New Mexico and Arizona. The many friars and padres sent to bring the Roman Catholic religion to the inhabitants also brought European goods to the Native Americans of the Southwest. The most significant expedition, in terms of being the first to map eastern Colorado, was the one led by Juan de Ulibarri in 1706—100 years before the famed Zebulon Pike expedition. The Colorado River is an approximately 862-mile (1,387 km) long river in the U.S. state of Texas. His forces kill the Comanche chief Cuerno Verde and other leaders at the base of Greenhorn Mountain, south of Pueblo, Colorado. His forces kill the Comanche chief Cuerno Verde and other leaders at the base of Greenhorn Mountain, south of Pueblo, Colorado. Jan 13, 2009 Erin LeFevre rated it it was amazing. [7], The river is frequently referred to as the Picketwire in the film The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance and once in the film "True Grit" (2010). Colorado Hispanic/Latino Historical Overview, A Forgotten Kingdom: The Spanish Frontier in Colorado and New Mexico, 1540–1821. Sangres.com, “Juan Bautista de Anza and Cuerno Verde.” n.d. Alfred B. Thomas, After Coronado (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1935). The river’s most famous landmark is the Grand Canyon in Arizona . Hispanic Americans would make their homes in the San Luis Valley beginning in the 1840s, the earliest non-Indians to do so. More than a year later, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado would explore the area in search of Gran Quivira, the seven cities of gold.However, his search would prove nothing more than a frustrating one when he returned empty-handed. Colorado River (north America), COLORADO RIVER EXPLORATIONS. The first Europeans to reach the Grand Canyon did so in the 16th Century. The majority of his party members are killed by Pawnee with the encouragement of the French. Getting past the tidal bore, he proceeded upstream in boats pulled by ropes to a point near Lighthouse Rock. They made plans for another Spanish expedition into Ute country in the fall. Part of the territory was then given to the territory of Utah. Zoom out and examine Lake Powell--the body of water formed by the dam. Several lack documentation; however, they are mentioned by later expeditions. Waldo Wedel, An Introduction to Kansas Archeology, Bulletin 174 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, 1959). Peaks loom over Grand Lake, where snowmelt forms the Colorado River headwaters.From there you'll pass through verdant ranchland and the yellow-hued Gore Canyon.. Spanish Explorers Spain, the first European nation to colonize the New World, pushed northward from Mexico to Pueblo Indian villages and beheld the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River 80 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. Native Americans eventually gained two valuable merchandise from following contact with Europeans: the horse and the gun. In 1939–40 and 1969–70, the archaeological remains of a masonry pueblo, initially discovered in the late nineteenth century, were examined by researchers from the Smithsonian Institution and the Kansas State Historical Society, respectively. The early Spanish explorers in the Rocky Mountain region named a river they found the Rio Colorado for the reddish silt that the water carried down from the mountains. Directly on the heels of Armijo were parties that included among its members explorers such as William Wolfskill, Ewing Young, Kit Carson, and Tom “Peg-Leg” Smith. An important expedition led by Juan de Ulibarri in 1706, mapped eastern Colorado, one hundred years before the famous Zebulon Pike expedition. Did You Know. Spain, the first European nation to colonize the New World, pushed northward from Mexico to Pueblo Indian villages and beheld the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River 80 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. The Spaniards reported on Native Americans, the absence of cities of gold, and land they considered worthless. When the Spaniards first arrived in the American Southwest, Native American groups already had detailed trade networks that included a vast communication system, as well as more traditional trading relationships. Spanish explorer Melchlor Diaz discovered this area in 1540, years before the Mayflower landed on the East Coast. In 1540, Coronado began his exploration of the American Southwest. Raids by Comanche and Ute bands were a constant and disruptive threat to the  newly formed outposts. The Spanish effort to control the lands that would become southeastern Colorado tended to be slow. Two officers in Coronado`s expedition, Diaz and Cardenas, also reached the Colorado and … A treaty between the Spanish and the Comanche in 1787 opened up the plains of eastern Colorado to trade for nearly 100 years. It was used for the Colorado River because of the abundance of red sandstone soil in the region. When the map comes up, click on "satellite view." In 1540, Coronado began his exploration of the American Southwest. The actual discovery of the river`s mouth was made by Alarcon in 1540. Marching northward with seventy-five men, he found mud pueblos inhabited by Native Americans. The Spanish had no difficulty in capturing the town, but once inside they realized it did not come close to … In 1642, Juan de Archuleta led an expedition to the high plains to pacify the rebellious Pueblos. The disastrous Villasur expedition was the last of the expeditions that had started at the end of the sixteenth century with the intent of finding the fabled Cibola, or Seven Cities of Gold, and protecting New Spain’s northern boundary from French intrusions. It was seen in 1776 by a Spanish priest who sought a crossing and found one at a point far above the canyon; this still bears the name Vado de los Padres. The Taos fugitives went to a place that came to be called El Cuartelejo, a site north of the Arkansas River where they lived with other Pueblo refugees and Apaches. The Colorado River flows from Colorado southwest through the Rocky Mountains and into Mexico . By the time the Spaniards came to the American Southwest, Native American groups already had trade networks with each other. The European discoverer of these two neighboring rivers called the present Colorado the Brazos de Dios, and the present Brazos the Colorado, and the names later became interchanged. At least twelve recorded expeditions into present-day Colorado occurred between 1593 and 1780 (table 1). The most important expedition, in terms of mapping eastern Colorado, was led by Juan de Ulibarri in 1706—100 years before the famous Zebulon Pike expedition. The location of this place remains in dispute because historical evidence seems to place it near the junction of the Purgatoire and Arkansas Rivers in present-day Colorado, near the famous Bent’s Old Fort. Trinidad, Colorado -- Highway 12 was designated as a Colorado State Byway in 1987 and as a National Forest Byway in 1988. 96.4% of this area is in Colorado, the remaining 3.6% is in New Mexico. National Old Spanish Trail in Colorado. see review. The exact location is unknown, although according to several historians, the site was located in present-day southeastern Colorado or western Kansas. There it drains into the Gulf of California, an arm of the Pacific Ocean . The Spaniards reported on Native Americans, the absence of cities of gold, and land they considered worthless. Adapted from Gray and Lewis (1999–2007); History Colorado 1999–2013; Public Lands Interpretive Association 2006–14; Sangres.com, n.d., and others. The Purgatoire River (Spanish: Río Purgatorio) is a river in southeastern Colorado, United States. Adapted from Gray and Lewis (1999–2007); History Colorado 1999–2013; Public Lands Interpretive Association 2006–14; Sangres.com, n.d. The Colorado River Headwaters byway traces one of North America's mightiest rivers from its source. Prior to the Civil War, American surveyors focused on routes, passes, and territorial boundaries. His forces corner and kill the Comanche chief Cuerno Verde and other leaders at the base of Greenhorn Mountain, south of Pueblo, Colorado. The Spanish subdued the natives, established bases, and sent out smaller exploration parties. Don Juan de Oñate establishes the first colony in New Mexico; explores New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas. Juan de Zaldívar enters the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The first Europeans to explore Colorado were the Spanish, who came looking for gold in the sixteenth century. They marched down to the Purgatoire River and headed west, hoping to cross the Sangre de Cristos. The initial visit to the region of present-day Colorado was an unauthorized expedition led by Francisco Leyva de Bonilla and Antonio Gutierrez de Humana in 1593. The many friars and padres sent to bring the Roman Catholic religion to the inhabitants also brought European goods to the Native Americans of the Southwest. Rumors of riches in what is now New Mexico and Colorado spread south to Mexico City during the early 1500s. The province stretched as far to the north as military expeditions could enforce periodic … Type "Glen Canyon dam" into the Search Box. While he probably didn’t reach present-day Colorado, Spain cited the trip as precedence for a claim to the Rio Grande and Colorado River basins. The point of this expedition was to confront the Comanche who had been raiding New Mexico since the early eighteenth century. Several attempts to find the riches were made, including that of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado. Juan de Humana and Francisco Leyva de Bonilla explore New Mexico and Colorado as far as the Purgatoire River. The Purgatoire River drains an area of 3,447 square miles (8,930 km2). David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (New York: Yale University Press, 1992). 1500 Spanish explorers introduce livestock and ditch systems called acequias. De Anza finally negotiates a lasting Spanish-Comanche peace. The arid semidesert environment required creative innovation in terms of water usage, crops, and livestock-raising techniques. Colorado come from the Spanish, "ruddy"or "red." Indians under Chief Popé expel the Spanish from Santa Fé, New Mexico, during the Pueblo Revolt. French trappers named the river to commemorate Spanish explorers killed in a Native American attack. At least twelve recorded expeditions into present-day Colorado occurred between 1593 and 1780 (table 1). Coronado traveled through the region searching for gold. The river explored by the spanish is the Colorado River. In 1539, the Spanish explorer Ulloa reached the mouth of the Colorado River without knowing of the river`s existence. After Rivera returned to the colony from his first trip, a number of Utes and Paiutes came to Abiquiú​ and met with him and the governor. Exploration of the Colorado River Spanish exploration and prospecting in Colorado was more frequent than the records reveal. Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza leads a punitive expedition against the Comanche across New Mexico and Colorado. The lands claimed by New Spain extended from Panama to the Arctic, although the capital was located in Mexico City. The Colorado basin spans 260,000 square miles, about 8 percent of the continental U.S. … Materially, the Hopi region was just as poor as the Zuni in precious metals, but the Spaniards did learn that a large river (the Colorado) lay to the west. Purgatoire means Purgatory in French. These settlements were slow to form, as inhabitants lived in constant danger of attack. Andrew L. Knaut, The Pueblo Revolt of 1680: Conquest and Resistance in Seventeenth-Century New Mexico (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997). In the early 1600s, before the 1680 Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico, religious bullying encouraged local pueblos to lead a series of minirebellions against the Spanish. Alarcon was to meet Coronado at a pre-determined point about 85 Spanish miles north of the Gulf of California, on the Colorado River and near present-day Yuma. In 1540, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado began to explore the American Southwest. Pueblo spiritual leaders faced whipping, imprisonment, slavery, or death by hanging. When the map comes up, click on "satellite view." They were released in July of 1807. David Hurst Thomas, ed., Columbian Consequences, vol. The mighty Colorado River’s course had, until then, been a mystery even to Native Americans of the region, a blank space on the best maps available. The Purgatoire River has cut a canyon through the Great Plains. This resulted in the development of cultural and economic traditions adaptable to the environment of the Southwest. Its diverse geography encompasses 104,094 square miles of the American West and includes swathes of the Great Plains , southern Rocky Mountains , and the … More than one hundred years later, in the 1700s, the Spaniards were transporting twelve chests of Spanish gold coins from Santa Fe, New Mexico to St. Augustine, Florida.The money … The name of the state, Colorado, has its origin in the Spanish … In 1640, ongoing revolts in Taos and the death of the mission priest Fray Pedro de Miranda led a number of Taos residents to flee to the plains to live with the Apache. 3. William Brandon, Quivera: Europeans in the Region of the Santa Fe Trail, 1540–1820 (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1990). He found mud pueblos occupied by Native Americans. Table 1: Spanish Expeditions into Southeastern Colorado (1590–1790). According to several historians, both locations may be correct. History - Spanish/Mexican The Mojaves first appear in the written record in the records of a Spanish expedition from New Mexico led by Juan de Onate in 1604, seeking the "southern sea". [6], The Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site is a large military base located along the western bank of the Purgatoire River. While in Colorado, Pike and his men were arrested by the Spanish and taken as prisoners to Mexico. Pueblo spiritual leaders were subjected to flogging, imprisonment, slavery, or death by hanging. Although Archuleta’s journal has not been found, accounts of his expeditions taken from other sources indicate that he journeyed onto the plains prior to 1642 with twenty soldiers and a group of allied Pueblos. According to several historians, both locations may be correct. Especially in the eastern areas, horses increased Ute mobility, allowing them to focus on big game mammals and adopt Plains Cultural elements. In 185o Lieutenant Whipple, surveying for a Pacific route, explored the Black Canyon and ascended the Grand Canyon to Diamond Creek. Juan de Archuleta enters eastern Colorado as far as Kiowa County to capture a group of Pueblo Indians living with the Apaches who participated in revolts against the Spanish. The Spanish subdued the natives, established bases, and sent out smaller exploration parties. The lure of adventure and the thrill of discovery whetted the Spanish desire to explore. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. [citation needed]. The upper Colorado River was controlled by Comanches from the early 18th century to … At least twelve recorded expeditions into present-day Colorado occurred between 1593 and 1780 (table 1). Development of trade with Native Americans gave Indians access to European goods made of iron and other metals. The location of this place remains in dispute because historical evidence seems to place it near the junction of the Purgatoire and Arkansas Rivers in present-day Colorado, near the famous Bent’s Old Fort. Skip the crowds and tour Colorado's Spanish Peaks Country . Type "Glen Canyon dam" into the Search Box. The Colorado River, which means 'red' or 'reddish' river in Spanish, was frequently confused by Spanish explorers with the Brazos River to the north. He was … Ted J. Warner and Himmerich Y. Valencia, eds., The Dominguez-Escalante Journal: Their Expedition through Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico in 1776 (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1995). In 1640, ongoing revolts in Taos and the death of the mission priest Fray Pedro de Miranda led a number of Taos residents to flee to the plains to live with the Apache. This was considered the site of El Cuartelejo. Native Americans gained two valuable items from contact with Europeans: the horse and the gun. Melchior Diaz journeys up the mouth of a river now known as the Colorado from the gulf and sends expeditions from the river to present day Imperial Valley. The expedition went in search of the famous Cibola, or Seven Cities of Gold. The Colorado River supports $1.4 trillion in annual economic activity and 16 million jobs in California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Wyoming That’s equivalent to about 1/12 of the total U.S. domestic product, meaning the Colorado River’s contribution is important to the national economy as well They pushed on to the Colorado River and traversed the Old Spanish Trail to California. Materially, the Hopi region was just as poor as the Zuni in precious metals, but the Spaniards did learn that a large river (the Colorado) lay to the west. But these Spanish explorers also found thriving communities already in existence along the banks of the river - ancestors of the present-day Quechan and Cocopah tribes - hunting, fishing and growing crops. The first European to visit Colorado was Spanish explorer Francisco de Coronado in 1541. Although Archuleta’s journal has not been found, accounts of his expeditions taken from other sources indicate that he journeyed onto the plains prior to 1642 with twenty soldiers and a group of allied Pueblos. Janet LeCompte, Pueblo, Hardscrabble, and Greenhorn (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978). Colorado River. 1765 A.D. Juan Maria Rivera leads Spanish expedition into San Juan and Sangre de Cristo Mountains in search of gold and silver. The lands claimed by New Spain extended from Panama to the Arctic, although the capital was located in Mexico City. On November 25, 2013, the U.S. Army announced that its plan to expand the Piñon Canyon Maneuver site had been cancelled. In 1601, Juan de Oñate explored the region in an effort to locate evidence of the earlier Humana and Bonilla expedition and discovered the Arkansas River, which he named El Río de San Francisco. Right click on the Google Maps link and open the program in a new window. The expedition disintegrated farther north on the Great Plains; Leyva was murdered in a … Between 1540 and 1542, Francisco de Coronado, a Spanish explorer looking for the mythical Seven Golden Cities of Cibola, may have crossed into Colorado. Herbert E. Bolton, The Spanish Borderlands (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996). At the time the Spaniards first arrived in the American Southwest, Native American groups already had detailed trade networks that included a vast communication system, as well as more traditional trading relationships. Coronado’s expedition failed in its search for wealth, but it brought about the first contact between Europeans and the Native American population. At 1,450 miles long, the Colorado River is the sixth longest in the nation, passing through seven states and two nations. One left the expedition after 6 … This did … Marching northward with seventy-five men, he found mud pueblos inhabited by Native Americans. At least twelve expeditions into present-day Colorado took place between 1593 and 1780. Upon arrival, the Spanish were also denied entrance to the village that they came across and, once again, resorted to using force to enter. The Spaniards and their New Mexican descendants understood the economic successes of these trading relationships and adopted many of the Native Americans’ trade patterns and customs. The actual discovery of the river`s mouth was made by Alarcon in 1540. The Colorado River has flowed since prehistoric times, when it was responsible for carving the Grand Canyon. The Scenic Highway of … Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza leads a punitive expedition against the Comanche across New Mexico and Colorado. ... February 23 1540: Francisco begins the search for Cibola in the south-western part of North America with 340 Spanish, 300 Indians, 1000 horses and slaves, and six swivel guns so that the purpose is to colonize as well as explore. Colorado: An Overview Added by yongli on 06/19/2018 - 12:08, last changed on 10/04/2020 - 14:37 . The river is also known locally as the Purgatory River or the Picketwire River. Francisco de Vargas re-conquers New Mexico and enters the San Luis Valley. The Villasur expedition started at the end of the 1500s. Having been told of the Amacava nation that lived on the Colorado River upstream from the junction of the Colorado and Gila rivers, (Onate sent Captain Geronimo Marquez and four soldiers up the river to make contact with … Between 1540 and 1542, Francisco de Coronado, a Spanish explorer looking for the mythical Seven Golden Cities of Cibola, may have crossed into Colorado. John Wesley Powell's Exploration of the Colorado River: John Wesley Powell. What I found … 1847 Mormons arrive in the Salt Lake Valley; begin cultivating farmland. Frederic J. Athearn, A Forgotten Kingdom: The Spanish Frontier in Colorado and New Mexico, 1540–1821 (Denver: Colorado Bureau of Land Management, 2nd ed., 1992). The disastrous Villasur expedition, in 1779, was the last of the expeditions that had started at the end of the sixteenth century with the intent of finding the fabled Cibola, or Seven Cities of Gold, and protecting New Spain’s northern boundary from French invasions. In the early seventeenth century, prior to the 1680 Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico, religious persecution inspired local pueblos to lead a series of mini-rebellions against the Spanish. While he … Archaeological evidence places it a considerable distance to the east, in what is now Scott State Park in Kansas. The Pueblo Indians take possession of Santa Fé and destroy many Spanish churches there and in Taos. Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza leads an expedition against the Comanche across New Mexico and Colorado. In 1640, ongoing revolts in Taos and the death of the mission priest Fray Pedro de Miranda led a number of Taos residents to flee to the plains to live with the Apache. Horses facilitated Ute raiding and trading, making them respected warriors and important middlemen in the southwestern slave and horse trade. The Spanish explorer Francisco de Ulloa unwittingly reached the mouth of the Colorado River, in the Gulf of California,… Adrien De Gerlache, The Norwegian Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) was the first explorer to reach the South Pole. In the early seventeenth century, prior to the 1680 Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico, religious persecution inspired local pueblos to lead a series of minirebellions against the Spanish. “They reached the banks of a river which seemed to be more than three or four leagues above the stream that flowed between them.” Trading between the Spanish and Native Americans gave the Indians European goods made of iron and other metals. Another shared aspect of life was the Roman Catholic religion, which many friars and padres brought with material goods to the Native Americans of the Southwest. Phil Carson, Across the Northern Frontier: Spanish Explorations in Colorado (Boulder: Johnson Books, 1998). The mighty flow of the Colorado River carved out this huge canyon millions of years ago. Thus, he gave the territory the name Florida (Flowery). Vickie Gray and Angela Lewis, “Brief Timeline of New Mexico History.” Bernalillo County, 1999–2007. In 1601, Juan de Oñate explored the region near the Purgatoire River and discovered the Arkansas River, which he named El Rio de San Francisco. The plan was abandoned after the killing of Pedro de Villasur in 1720. Spanish exploration and prospecting in Colorado was more frequent than the records reveal. Native Americans eventually gained two valuable commodities from subsequent contacts with Europeans – the horse and the gun. The Colorado River's name is Spanish for the "color red" referring to the river's muddy color, but Colorado was just the final in the long line of labels this iconic river has worn over the years. Coronado’s expedition failed in its search for wealth, but it brought about the first contact between Europeans and the Native American population. Montana: This state name comes from the Spanish montaña (mountain) due to the state’s many … Originally the 16th century Spaniard explorers called the river Rio del Tizon, which translated to mean River of Embers or Firebrand River and supposedly described a practice local natives used to warm … from the spanish from the spanish What language did Colorado come from? During the expedition, Humana murdered Bonilla, and all but one of the remaining members of the group were killed somewhere in the vicinity of the Purgatoire River. The Arapaho and Cheyenne move onto the plains and begin to trade peacefully with the Spanish comancheros and ciboleros riding out of Santa Fé and Taos. These men were to follow the Arkansas River to its source, head south and locate the headwaters of the Red River, and then follow the Red River back to Louisiana. However, the most significant expedition, in terms of being the first to document eastern Colorado, was the one led by Juan de Ulibarri in 1706 – 100 years before the much-heralded Zebulon Pike expedition. The Early Spanish Explorers. In 1540, Coronado began his exploration of the American Southwest. Raids by Comanche and Ute bands were a threat to the newly formed outposts. With the help of Indian scouts, they acquired enough information to map the river and its … Legends of a rich Quivira lured Leyva and Gutiérrez to the plains, where they were likely the first Spanish in half a century to explore the Canadian River valley of the Panhandle. Development of trade with Native Americans allowed the aboriginal inhabitants access to European material culture, such as iron and other metals, as early as the mid-eighteenth century. French trappers named the river to commemorate Spanish explorers killed in … Exploration of the Colorado River Three leaders affiliated with the Vázquez de Coronado expedition were able to reach the Colorado River. On top of this, they were also tasked with escorting 51 Osage Indians back to their homes in Kansas. The Spanish established bases and sent out smaller exploration parties. In 1601, Juan de Oñate explored the region in an effort to locate evidence of the earlier Humana and Bonilla expedition and discovered the Arkansas River, which he named El Río de San Francisco. Look for evidence of falling water levels. The Arapaho and Cheyenne move onto the plains and begin to trade peacefully with the Spanish comancheros and ciboleros riding out of Santa Fé and Taos. The Colorado River Headwaters byway traces one of North America's mightiest rivers from its source. The first visit to the region of present-day Colorado was led by Francisco Leyva de Bonilla and Antonio Gutiérrez de Humana in 1593. Explore the Colorado Basin. Coronado’s expedition was the first meeting of Europeans and Native Americans. Kansas Historical Society, “El Cuartelejo, Scott County.” Topeka, 2013. A man named Melchior Diaz named the river Rio del Tizon, which stuck until almost 200 years later when it was called the Red Colorado. February 23 1540: Francisco begins the search for Cibola in the south-western part of North America with 340 Spanish, 300 Indians, 1000 horses and slaves, and six swivel guns so that the purpose is to colonize as well as explore. 3. Only six of the explorers exited at the mouth of the Grand Canyon 3 months and 6 days later. They reached Hawikuh in early July. Powell’s expeditions in 1869 and 1871-72 revealed the Colorado’s secrets, as well as some of the most remarkable terrain–including the magnificent Grand Canyon–to be found anywhere on earth. Antonio Valverde y Cosio explores Colorado as far as the Platte River and also explores Kansas. [1] Purgatoire means Purgatory in French. Citizens groups opposed plans of the U.S. Army to expand the base.