/P 56 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /K [ 337 0 R 345 0 R 353 0 R 361 0 R 369 0 R ] /Type /StructElem /S /P /K [ 314 0 R ] Hydrogen emission spectrum series: In the year 1885, on the basis of experimental observations, Balmer proposed the formula for correlating the wave number of the spectral lines emitted and the energy shells involved. The different energies En correspond << /P 248 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /Type /StructElem /Pg 47 0 R /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /S /TD 184 0 obj /Pg 38 0 R endobj /Pg 50 0 R endobj << /Pg 50 0 R /PieceInfo 449 0 R /P 276 0 R /P 56 0 R /K [ 112 ] << endobj /S /P • Answer the pre-lab questions that appear at the end of this lab exercise. /P 336 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /S /TD 54 0 obj << /P 361 0 R 104 0 obj >> << endobj /Type /StructElem >> /Pg 26 0 R (ROYGBIV) The diffraction (bending) of light by a diffraction grating will separate the electromagnetic radiation as a function of its wavelength. /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem 362 0 obj << /K [ 12 13 14 ] 181 0 obj endobj >> This experiment allows more precise measurements of the wavelengths of the emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen with a spectrophotometer than those previously published. endobj /Type /StructElem << /S /TD /K [ 60 ] /Type /StructElem endobj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem << /Pg 47 0 R 186 0 obj /S /P /S /Span 403 0 obj /K [ 15 16 ] endobj endobj spectrum. /K [ 62 ] /S /Span endobj << /S /TD /K [ 5 ] /Pg 47 0 R /K [ 173 0 R 175 0 R 177 0 R 179 0 R ] are perfectly straight and parallel and are equally spaced so that there are a /P 208 0 R /P 56 0 R /P 300 0 R /P 247 0 R /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem 247 0 obj endobj This is a small part of the hydrogen emission spectrum. condition . 203 0 obj There is a lot more to the hydrogen spectrum than the three lines you can see with the naked eye. endobj /Type /StructElem /CS /DeviceRGB 7 – Spectrum of the Hydrogen Atom 118 0 obj endobj /S /TD /Type /StructElem endobj 78 0 R 78 0 R 78 0 R 82 0 R 82 0 R 379 0 R 380 0 R 381 0 R 382 0 R 383 0 R 384 0 R >> << /S /P >> /S /TD This /Pg 38 0 R << [ 62 0 R 67 0 R 88 0 R 85 0 R 90 0 R 94 0 R 97 0 R 70 0 R 70 0 R 74 0 R 74 0 R 74 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /Type /StructElem /S /P /P 56 0 R << 313 0 obj /S /P /Type /StructElem /P 320 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /K [ 209 0 R 223 0 R 235 0 R 247 0 R 259 0 R ] >> /S /P /K [ 291 0 R 293 0 R 295 0 R 297 0 R 299 0 R ] At only those special /P 301 0 R << >> /P 153 0 R The key difference between hydrogen and helium emission spectra is that the helium emission spectrum (plu. /Pg 47 0 R /P 259 0 R /K [ 263 0 R ] 338 0 obj /P 56 0 R << /Pg 47 0 R << /Pg 50 0 R /S /Figure /Pg 38 0 R /Pg 47 0 R smaller than the angle for blue light? Does the known value agree with your /Type /StructElem >> << << This is an emission line spectrum. the various wavelengths can be determined by measuring the angles. /P 56 0 R 301 0 obj The emission spectrum of a chemical element or compound is the series of lines that represent the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation emitted by that chemical element while the … >> /Type /StructElem /S /TR EXPERIMENT Page 1 Hydrogen Emission Spectra PURPOSE In this experiment you will use a simple spectroscope to observe the line spectrum of hydrogen, identify the wavelength of each transition, and determine the corresponding energy levels. /Type /StructElem >> /P 372 0 R /K [ 138 0 R 139 0 R ] /S /P >> /K [ 64 ] /S /P >> << << /P 223 0 R /Pg 47 0 R 79 0 obj /K [ 181 0 R 183 0 R 185 0 R 187 0 R ] With these measured wavelengths you /Pg 38 0 R photon: E = hf, where h is Planck's constant and f is the frequency of the 141 0 R 142 0 R 143 0 R 144 0 R 145 0 R 146 0 R 147 0 R 148 0 R 149 0 R 150 0 R 151 0 R endobj /S /P endobj endobj What is the relation between the /S /TR << >> >> endobj /Pg 47 0 R /K [ 98 ] >> /K [ 269 0 R ] /Type /StructElem /P 121 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R >> Each element or compound has a distinct emission spectrum that can be used to help identify it. 137 0 obj 312 0 obj It is possible to detect patterns of lines in both the ultra-violet and infra-red regions of the spectrum as well. /Type /StructElem /S /P /P 362 0 R /Pg 38 0 R >> << • find the wavelength of a peak of intensity and its uncertainty. >> /S /P 3 0 obj /Length 3287 >> /Pg 50 0 R /K [ 45 ] << /P 232 0 R 1 0 obj /Pg 50 0 R /P 276 0 R /S /P endobj /P 56 0 R /Workbook /Document images of the first-order Balmer lines. /Type /StructElem /Pg 47 0 R In traveling to the observer, the ray [ 57 0 R 72 0 R 79 0 R 99 0 R 100 0 R 101 0 R 102 0 R 103 0 R 104 0 R 105 0 R 106 0 R 281 0 obj /K [ 29 ] /P 56 0 R With your measured L and x's, compute the angle q of /P 303 0 R /K [ 156 0 R 157 0 R ] /S /TD It would tend to lose energy again by falling back down to a lower level. endobj /S /P /P 224 0 R /Type /StructElem /K [ 251 0 R ] endobj >> /Type /StructElem endobj /K [ 72 ] /K [ 25 ] 256 0 obj endobj /S /P , where i = 1,2,3,4,  precisely 330 0 obj /P 223 0 R /K [ 6 ] << /P 345 0 R With these measured wavelengths you will compute the Rydberg constant. << << /Type /StructElem >> /K [ 363 0 R ] >> /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem << 166 0 obj /Type /StructElem integer. /Pg 38 0 R endobj spectrum of hydrogen and the Rydberg constant In this experiment you will use a diffraction-grating spectrometer to measure the wavelengths of the emission lines of hydrogen. /Type /StructElem /Pg 47 0 R You will also show that these wavelengths fit a pattern of energy states described by a simple formula endobj because the 4th line is faint and very close to the violet edge of the visible 356 0 obj /P 208 0 R Several of the possible emissions are observed because the sample contains many hydrogen atoms that are in different initial energy states and reach different final energy states. 303 0 obj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /S /P /F6 17 0 R 395 0 obj /K [ 39 ] /Pg 47 0 R /S /P /P 210 0 R There is a lot more to the hydrogen spectrum than the three lines you can see with the naked eye. endobj 185 0 obj 7. /P 277 0 R /K 80 108 0 obj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem where l is the wavelength of the light and m is any /K [ 12 ] << << 116 0 obj /Pg 50 0 R /Type /StructElem /S /P /K [ 19 ] endobj • In the second part of the experiment, the energy level diagram of the hydrogen atom will be determined. Your TA will show you how to do this. /K [ 35 ] endobj With these measured wavelengths you will compute the Rydberg constant. /K [ 13 ] A grating behaves essentially like a multi-slit aperture, >> << /P 310 0 R << >> /P 177 0 R << /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem << /K [ 21 ] /S /P /S /TD endobj The spectral lines are grouped into series according to n′. /Type /StructElem It can do this in two different ways. 2. << Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen . /Type /StructElem >> /P 209 0 R 272 0 obj endobj 350 0 obj /Pg 3 0 R endobj 192 0 obj /S /TD /S /Table /K [ 257 0 R ] endobj /Pg 38 0 R endobj 72 0 obj >> /Type /StructElem 179 0 R 182 0 R 184 0 R 186 0 R 187 0 R 190 0 R 192 0 R 194 0 R 195 0 R 196 0 R 197 0 R /S /P /K [ 42 ] << Which initial endobj /P 56 0 R /P 215 0 R >> 400 0 obj quantum numbers like so: This is none other than Balmer's formula! >> /K [ 54 ] /K [ 36 ] >> endobj And, since line spectrum are unique, this is pretty important to explain where those wavelengths come from. /S /TD /K [ 51 ] << << /Pg 38 0 R /S /P endobj >> endobj endobj /S /P << /K [ 35 ] << 390 0 obj /K [ 40 ] /K [ 43 ] /S /P 114 0 obj /K [ 33 ] 77 0 obj endobj /K [ 168 0 R ] << endobj << endobj /P 208 0 R /Pg 50 0 R /Tabs /S /S /P >> /Pg 47 0 R /K [ 129 0 R 130 0 R ] /P 56 0 R /S /Figure >> /Pg 50 0 R 282 0 obj Part 2. /P 56 0 R /Type /StructElem /S /P << /S /P endobj >> /Pg 50 0 R << /S /P /Type /StructElem /Pg 47 0 R /S /P /S /Span /S /TD >> << /K [ 86 ] endobj It is possible to detect patterns of lines in both the ultra-violet and infra-red regions of the spectrum as well. /S /P /P 165 0 R >> /P 290 0 R directly, and which quantities are calculated? /P 56 0 R >> << /P 300 0 R endobj /Type /StructElem /K [ 155 0 R 158 0 R 161 0 R 163 0 R ] >> 243 0 obj << certain colors are missing. The four wavelengths (or The calibrated spectroscope will be used to determine the wavelengths of the visible light spectrum (called the Balmer Series) in the hydrogen spectrum, and these wavelengths will be used to determine an experimental value for the Rydberg Constant. /Type /StructElem 277 0 obj /P 56 0 R /Type /StructElem >> 1. /S /P 177 0 obj /S /P /S /P /Type /StructElem << constant), and R is a number predicted by the Bohr model to be R = 1.09737 ´ >> /P 295 0 R /Pg 26 0 R endobj /P 56 0 R /Slide /Part /P 345 0 R << /S /P /P 56 0 R endobj << /Type /StructElem >> The number of lines per mm is marked on the grating. /Pg 38 0 R endobj endobj /Type /StructElem /P 56 0 R /Type /StructElem endobj /K 75 endobj 190 0 obj /Pg 38 0 R endobj 389 0 obj The two rays /K [ 347 0 R ] >> << If you look closely, you will see some dark lines in the spectrum where endobj In this experiment, linear emission spectra of discharge tubes are studied. 202 0 obj 349 0 obj /P 127 0 R << 325 0 obj /Type /StructElem >> /K [ 0 ] 368 0 obj << /Pg 47 0 R /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /P 188 0 R /Outlines 446 0 R endobj 109 0 R 110 0 R 111 0 R 112 0 R 113 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 117 0 R 118 0 R 119 0 R 120 0 R << /Pg 47 0 R /K [ 1 ] /S /P >> << << >> Spectrum of hydrogen. 381 0 obj /Type /StructElem /K [ 214 0 R ] >> The emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen has been divided into a number of spectral series, with wavelengths given by the Rydberg formula.These observed spectral lines are due to the electron making transitions between two energy levels in an atom. /S /P /P 164 0 R /P 56 0 R /K [ 78 ] In contrast to a white endobj /Pg 38 0 R /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem >> /Type /StructElem /S /TD /K [ 125 0 R ] >> /Type /StructElem /S /TD /K [ 8 ] the diffraction. /P 313 0 R >> 173 0 obj << /K [ 27 ] endobj /K [ 174 0 R ] /Pg 47 0 R /Type /StructElem /K [ 82 ] /K 46 /K [ 33 ] /K [ 30 ] Sketch /K [ 9 ] >> 151 0 obj 128 0 obj the visible range of wavelengths. /Pg 47 0 R /S /TD /Pg 50 0 R /P 297 0 R /Pg 38 0 R /K [ 373 0 R ] /S /P /K [ 365 0 R ] endobj /Pg 26 0 R >> /Type /StructElem lines of the Balmer series. endobj << /Pg 47 0 R endobj /Pg 26 0 R /S /Span 296 0 obj endobj << Diffraction grating. /P 56 0 R >> Since we are observing hydrogen’s emission spectrum, we must use the negative E photon value for ΔE in equation (3). /K [ 241 0 R ] 365 0 obj << /K [ 233 0 R ] << << 280 0 obj << /Pg 26 0 R endobj >> /K [ 108 ] endobj /Pg 47 0 R A prism spectrometer, a low pressure hydrogen tube, a low pressure helium tube, a high voltage source, and … /Pg 38 0 R /Pg 50 0 R /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem << When a >> /Type /StructElem /K [ 33 ] << /Type /StructElem /K [ 47 ] /Pg 3 0 R endobj endobj endobj /P 300 0 R /Pg 47 0 R 274 0 R 275 0 R 279 0 R 281 0 R 282 0 R 284 0 R 285 0 R 287 0 R 288 0 R 289 0 R 292 0 R /S /P endobj endobj >> >> /Pg 3 0 R /S /TD shown, measure the x-positions (on both sides of the central position) of each /S /P /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem 393 0 R 394 0 R 395 0 R 396 0 R 397 0 R 398 0 R 399 0 R 400 0 R 401 0 R 402 0 R 403 0 R << /S /P << 5. >> You have no doubt been exposed many times to the Bohr model of the atom. >> >> /Pg 38 0 R These observed spectral lines. << /K [ 48 ] /ParentTreeNextKey 5 In this experiment, linear emission spectra of discharge tubes are studied. /K [ 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 ] /S /P 355 0 R 357 0 R 359 0 R 360 0 R 363 0 R 365 0 R 367 0 R 368 0 R 371 0 R 373 0 R 375 0 R /Pg 26 0 R Hydrogen spectrum wavelength. endobj /Pg 47 0 R can compute the Rydberg constant R. Begin by using the "Project Star" cardboard /K [ 46 ] 125 0 obj lines. /Type /StructElem /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] 89 0 obj /Pg 47 0 R >> /P 56 0 R endobj 404 0 R 405 0 R 406 0 R 407 0 R 408 0 R 409 0 R 410 0 R ] /Pg 3 0 R /P 189 0 R << Heated hydrogen gives off light which when viewed through prism shows emission spectrum of bright lines at specific frequencies. /Pg 47 0 R >> >> >> /Pg 47 0 R /P 120 0 R /Type /StructElem << Experiment 6. 117 0 obj produce visible wavelength photons. >> 304 0 obj endobj /P 56 0 R /S /TR 83 0 obj >> << between any pair of states such that ni > nf  produces a photon; however, only those >> 387 0 obj /P 283 0 R /K [ 48 ] /Type /StructElem /K [ 64 ] >> shades of violet. photon? /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem >> << /S /TD >> /S /P /S /P /K [ 28 ] >> 226 0 obj /P 236 0 R >> /P 56 0 R /P 56 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /Type /StructElem /P 290 0 R >> << >> 3. /S /TD 168 0 obj measured q's /Pg 47 0 R /K [ 0 ] /Pg 3 0 R >> 363 0 obj /Worksheet /Part An incident light beam made of a several distinct 336 0 obj /Pg 47 0 R /Pg 26 0 R /Type /StructElem >> /S /TD << >> a given order (say m=3), is the angle of diffraction for red light larger or /S /P >> /K [ 67 ] endobj /P 56 0 R endobj << 410 0 obj /K [ 237 0 R ] >> /K [ 43 ] << /S /TD 84 0 obj /Pg 50 0 R 169 0 obj /Pg 50 0 R /F1 5 0 R << Determine the energies of the photons corresponding to each of these wavelengths. 107 0 obj /K [ 22 ] /P 155 0 R endobj /Pg 47 0 R << /K [ 9 ] >> << /Type /StructElem /S /P On both sides of the lamp, you should clearly see the >> Bohr's model explains the spectral lines of the hydrogen atomic emission spectrum. << "lines") were henceforth called the Balmer lines of hydrogen. /S /P /S /TR /K [ 301 0 R 303 0 R 305 0 R 307 0 R 309 0 R ] /K [ 84 ] endobj 393 0 obj endobj >> << /Chartsheet /Part endobj /Type /StructElem part 2 of this experiment, how will you determine the spacing d of your << /K [ 159 0 R 160 0 R ] /Image12 12 0 R << 211 0 obj /Pg 38 0 R endobj We can't see electrons in an atom so we have to study them indirectly. << << While the electron of the atom remains in the ground state, its energy is unchanged. /K [ 81 ] 234 0 R 237 0 R 239 0 R 241 0 R 243 0 R 245 0 R 246 0 R 249 0 R 251 0 R 253 0 R 255 0 R /S /P (Be careful to keep the grating facing the lamp. /S /Span endobj /Pg 47 0 R 138 0 obj 318 0 obj 248 0 obj >> 334 0 obj 384 0 obj << /Pg 50 0 R endobj /P 120 0 R >> (5) We know that for the Balmer Series (the visible wavelengths of emitted light that will be observed in today’s lab) n f = 2. 305 0 obj << /K [ 281 0 R 282 0 R ] << endobj /K [ 69 ] << /Pg 47 0 R << /InlineShape /Sect /S /TD /Type /StructElem /P 321 0 R >> /K [ 40 ] /P 56 0 R endobj /P 264 0 R /S /P endobj endobj << /F4 13 0 R >> endobj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem << /S /TR << endobj So they kind of blend together. 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R 143 0 R /Pg 47 0 R The above picture shows the visible light emission spectrum for hydrogen. /Pg 47 0 R /P 350 0 R The hydrogen emission spectrum comprises radiation of discrete frequencies. >> << Move your eye position, not the /K [ 253 0 R ] 224 0 obj /Type /StructElem /Pg 50 0 R endobj /S /TD endobj endobj 123 0 obj /P 56 0 R /P 260 0 R /K [ 355 0 R ] /K [ 308 0 R ] /K [ 37 ] /Type /StructElem /S /P /P 278 0 R This lab presented us four examples of an emission light spectrum. /Type /StructElem 3. /K [ 292 0 R ] /S /P << endobj /K [ 61 ] << >> endobj 249 0 obj /K [ 3 ] 90 0 obj The visible portion of the spectrum which you will observe in this experiment was the first … >> >> /S /P Extending hydrogen's emission spectrum into the UV and IR. >> /Type /StructElem >> >> /Pg 26 0 R /P 56 0 R /Pg 47 0 R 316 0 R 318 0 R 319 0 R 322 0 R 324 0 R 326 0 R 328 0 R 329 0 R 330 0 R 331 0 R 332 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /P 230 0 R 357 0 obj 2) Calculate the wavelength of light that corresponds to an energy of 7.78 x 10^-19 J 270 0 obj /K [ 296 0 R ] /Pg 38 0 R /S /P << endobj >> << /Contents [ 4 0 R 440 0 R ] endobj shorter than visible wavelengths? endobj >> /K [ 32 ] /K [ 113 ] << endobj endobj >> /Pg 3 0 R 385 0 R 386 0 R 387 0 R 388 0 R 389 0 R 390 0 R 391 0 R 392 0 R 393 0 R 394 0 R 395 0 R /P 213 0 R /K 99 /P 53 0 R /P 56 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /Pg 47 0 R >> << /P 56 0 R /S /TR endobj >> You need to understand convergence, production of UV, vis, IR, excitation, concentric energy levels and be able to draw the line spectra. /Pg 47 0 R 126 0 obj /Pg 38 0 R /P 370 0 R /K [ 15 16 ] endobj /Type /StructElem 370 0 obj 388 0 obj /K [ 17 ] images of the first-order Balmer lines. Experiment 10 Emission Spectra 10.1 Objectives By the end of this experiment, you will be able to: • measure the emission spectrum of a source of light using the digital spectrometer. 376 0 obj /K [ 41 ] endobj >> /K [ 16 ] >> /StructParents 0 88 0 obj 284 0 obj 110 0 obj 19th century, it was known that hydrogen gas, when made to glow in an /P 291 0 R endobj endobj /P 135 0 R /P 56 0 R 333 0 obj >> endobj 288 0 obj >> 344 0 obj /Type /StructElem << /K [ 132 0 R ] << endobj /Pg 38 0 R << 264 0 obj >> /Pg 50 0 R /K [ 50 ] /Pg 3 0 R 156 0 obj The objectives of this experiment are: (1) to study the emission of light from a hydrogen discharge source, (2) to learn the empirical formulas to characterize the pattern of spectral lines from hydrogen, (3) to learn the postulates for developing the Bohr model of the /S /P << /Pg 38 0 R lines in the spectrum where /S /TD endobj 251 0 obj toward the hydrogen lamp. << >> 175 0 obj /P 56 0 R /S /Span /P 183 0 R << /S /P << /Pg 3 0 R 53 0 obj Most of the spectrum is invisible to the eye because it is either in the infrared or the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. /K [ 265 0 R ] and lower, more negative, energies. endobj << /Type /StructElem /Pg 38 0 R 86 0 R 87 0 R 88 0 R 89 0 R 90 0 R 91 0 R 92 0 R 93 0 R 94 0 R 95 0 R 96 0 R 97 0 R endobj /Type /StructElem /Pg 26 0 R /K [ 105 ] 157 0 obj 278 0 obj >> << /K [ 2 ] /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /P 56 0 R /K [ 42 ] /S /P >> /P 56 0 R • compare and contrast the spectra of various light sources. << 320 0 obj /K [ 328 0 R ] endobj /P 337 0 R /Type /StructElem endobj /Pg 47 0 R Experiment: The Hydrogen Emission Spectrum Introduction When we view white light through a diffraction grating, we can see all of the components of the visible spectra. /S /TD >> /K [ 26 ] /P 310 0 R endobj /S /P /S /P hydrogen atom. 236 0 obj endobj endobj 345 0 obj /Pg 3 0 R /K [ 31 ] /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem endobj /Type /StructElem >> the beginning of the lab period). << /Pg 47 0 R /Type /StructElem /K [ 165 0 R 167 0 R 169 0 R 171 0 R ] << /Type /StructElem >> In the years leading up to the application of quantum theory to the spectrum of hydrogen, scientists had laboured to find an empirical formula or 58 0 obj 196 0 obj /P 56 0 R endobj >> /S /TR >> Bohr. /S /P 135 0 obj << /S /TD /K [ 41 ] /K [ 5 ] /Type /StructElem >> << /Pg 47 0 R /S /TD /Type /StructElem >> /Pg 38 0 R It is crucial for the success of this experiment that the spectrometer is aligned accurately. /S /P /P 56 0 R 6. /Type /StructElem << /K [ 93 ] /P 56 0 R /Type /StructElem /P 172 0 R /P 56 0 R that is, a mask with many closely spaced slits. /Type /StructElem /S /TD /K [ 23 ] >> /P 124 0 R >> /P 56 0 R /K [ 60 ] /K [ 34 ] endobj 146 0 obj /Pages 2 0 R 75 0 obj 197 0 obj /P 56 0 R >> /S /TD /K [ 225 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Pg 47 0 R << /P 209 0 R endobj /P 56 0 R << 317 0 obj /Pg 47 0 R >> will compute the Rydberg constant. >> /Pg 3 0 R /Type /StructElem /P 154 0 R /Pg 26 0 R /P 56 0 R >> /Pg 47 0 R /S /P Because there are many energy levels possible for the electron in a hydrogen atom, and because the electron could jump from any higher n to any lower n, there are many lines in the spectrum of hydrogen. << endobj /K [ 101 ] /P 155 0 R endobj endobj /Pg 26 0 R endobj /Pg 47 0 R /P 56 0 R observing the helium spectrum. endobj /Type /StructElem << /Type /StructElem Explain. endobj >> /F2 7 0 R /S /P 352 0 obj /S /P /S /P /Pg 26 0 R /S /P /P 56 0 R /P 56 0 R 73 0 obj Wavelengths are in the ultraviolet region-13.6 eV 0.0 eV E … PHYS 1493/1494/2699: Exp. In this experiment you will use a diffraction-grating spectrometer to measure the wavelengths of the emission lines of hydrogen. /S /TD endobj /P 235 0 R /P 56 0 R /P 158 0 R /S /TD At the time of Rutherford ‘s experiments, chemists analyzed chemical components using spectroscopy, and physicists tried to find what kind of order in complex spectral lines. /P 56 0 R /K [ 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 /P 56 0 R The Balmer series includes the lines due to transitions from an outer orbit n > 2 to the orbit n' = 2. /Pg 47 0 R >> /S /P /Type /StructElem >> /S /TD /S /P /LC /iSQP endobj endobj >> 63 0 obj At ordinary temperature, all atoms are present at their lowest energy level (n=1). 372 0 obj These different combinations lead to … /Pg 38 0 R /S /P /S /Span endobj >> endobj /S /TR >> 163 0 obj >> If you use something like a prism or diffraction grating to separate out the light, for hydrogen, you don't get a continuous spectrum. 228 0 obj endobj /Type /StructElem << /Type /Page /K [ 27 ] >> endobj 322 0 obj << 231 0 obj 292 0 obj /Pg 38 0 R From equations (3) and (4), >> >> The line spectrum of hydrogen. /K [ 341 0 R ] >> endobj /K [ 231 0 R ] /Pg 47 0 R 274 0 obj 99 0 obj 244 0 obj >> can cross your name off the sign-out sheet. /S /P /K 70 4. << /Pg 47 0 R In this experiment you will measure the visible part of the hydrogen spectrum, the Balmer series, and determine the Rydberg constant R y. << /S /P /P 209 0 R These series of radiation are named after the scientists who discovered them. endobj /K [ 6 ] /Pg 50 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /K [ 57 ] To perform this experiment intelligently, you need to understand two << /S /Span 233 0 obj /Pg 50 0 R /K [ 106 ] endobj /K [ 109 ] << >> use equation (5) to determine the Rydberg constant R.  Each of your l's produces an independent value 210 0 obj 160 0 obj /Type /StructElem endobj >> 142 0 obj /Type /StructElem the wavelengths of the emitted photon is related to the initial and final 329 0 obj /Pg 38 0 R >> /K [ 20 ] /P 56 0 R /Type /StructElem /S /TD /P 56 0 R >> /Pg 47 0 R >> /K [ 123 0 R ] /Type /StructElem /K 11 >> 369 0 obj /K [ 7 ] endobj /Type /StructElem /Type /StructElem 153 0 obj /K [ 162 0 R ] /Pg 47 0 R Named after Johann Balmer, who discovered the Balmer formula, an empirical equation to predict the Balmer series, in 1885. endobj The classification of the series by the Rydberg formula was important in the development of quantum mechanics. 223 0 obj endobj /K [ 18 ] /S /TD endobj /S /Table /P 56 0 R /S /P endobj 80 0 obj >> endobj /K [ 58 ] << /P 276 0 R /Pg 47 0 R /Type /StructElem << /Pg 26 0 R A hydrogen spectral tube is examined through a student diffraction grating illustrating the hydrogen spectrum /Type /StructElem /Pg 3 0 R /P 56 0 R endobj /Pg 47 0 R /S /TD endobj /Type /StructElem /Pg 50 0 R >> /Type /StructElem /Pg 47 0 R << /P 290 0 R /Type /StructElem /Pg 38 0 R /P 247 0 R << endobj /K [ 39 ] endobj 214 0 obj >> /Type /StructElem 130 0 obj endobj /P 361 0 R /Type /StructElem /K [ 12 ] /Type /StructElem an energy level diagram of the hydrogen atom with the various levels labeled /Type /StructElem /Pg 50 0 R If not, can you think of any systematic errors in your /Pg 47 0 R /P 235 0 R << /K [ 43 ] 291 0 obj >> /P 134 0 R length is n (grooves per cm), then the separation between adjacent slits is