Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. RGEU (1951). Conditional Rules for the Design of Civil and Industrial Constructions in Seismic Regions (in Romanian). “Portuguese studies on earthquake resistant structures,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Tokyo: Gakujutsu Bunken Fukuy-Rai). The following is concluded: – Currently, the technique of nominally reinforced rubble stone masonry buildings with cement mortar and wooden diaphragms in seismic areas, is only allowed in seven countries in the world; Nepal, India, China, Tajikistan, Georgia, Iran and Croatia. 142:04015145. doi: 10.1061/(asce)st.1943-541x.0001417, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar. Whilst squared random rubble can be categorised as: regular coursed; snecked; un-coursed. A stone built wall pattern. GB/T 33735-2017 (2017). View all
In this code, flat rubble stone houses with wooden roofs are allowed up to one story in zone 7, with a maximum height of 3.6 m from ground level to halfway the gable. For instance, Xizang Province (Tibet) borders the Himalayan Range, and Xinjiang Province is crossed by the Altay, Tian Shan, Kunlun Shan and Karakoram Mountains. Ordinance RD-02-20-2 (2012). J. Struct. Until the dissolution in 1992 into its currently 7 independent countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, and North Macedonia), the whole region used one unified seismic code with the addition of regional seismic hazard maps. Mortar should be cement-sand in the ratio of 1:6 with minimum compression strength of 3.0 N/mm2 at 28 days according to IS:1905-1987 (2017), although in IS:13828 even mud mortar is allowed, but with stricter rules for building heights. The Indian seismic code IS:1893 (part 1)-2016 (2016) also leaves room for interpretation as stone masonry “should preferably be avoided” in seismic zone IV, and construction of schools “should not be permitted.” The overall point is: Any possible misinterpretation can easily be avoided by adding a clear line in the codes, which specifically states whether rubble stone masonry is allowed or not; and to what type of buildings and structures it applies. 5:55. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00055, Schildkamp, M., and Araki, Y. Further, the minimum demand for daylight in classrooms is specified in the design regulation for rural school buildings (Construction Standard 109, 2008), recommending a minimum ratio of glass surface versus floor area of 1:6. “Inelastic cyclic response of stone-concrete bearing walls,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Concrete Technology for Developing Countries, (Amman: Musa Resheidat). Iraqi Seismic Code 303 (in Arabic). The country is divided into Seismic Fortification zones, and every building in zone 6 or above must be designed to resist earthquake motions. China has a long historic culture of stone masonry which has been practiced for many centuries. Seismic Technical Specification for Building Construction in Town and Village (in Chinese). It must be further noted that, although rubble stone is allowed, it is not used very often, as in Armenia the primary choice for stone wall material is dimensioned tuff stone blocks. Diario Oficial del Bicentenario 7 de abril de 2017, Lima. Guidelines for Seismic Reconstruction of School Buildings and Design of New School Buildings in the Republic of Armenia (in Armenian). However, the seismic provisions and the masonry chapter are mostly verbatim copies of chapters 16 and 21 of the Uniform Building Code of 1997 (UBC-1997, 1997), meaning that the information does not cover local practices, and as of today is more than 20 years old. Earthquake Resistant Construction Rules RPS 2000 - Version 2011 (in French). IS:1905-1987 (2017). Built Environ. Calculate The Quantity Of Random Rubble Masonry Step 2 For The Short Wall(Single Wall) Question: Calculate The Quantity Of Random Rubble Masonry Step 2 For The Short Wall(Single Wall) This problem has been solved! Sci. D. Kouinoglou (Greece), Assoc. EN 1996-1-1 (2005). The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Croatia has not defined such limit in their Annex, however, for buildings with higher importance such as schools, and URM buildings in areas with PGA > 0.30g, a full seismic verification is required. Still, in the rural and mountainous regions where rubble stone remains to be the primary construction material, both these scenarios of qualified design and required approval are highly unlikely to occur. This type of construction is the cheapest & requires more skills in construction. It is therefore proposed to internationally adopt loadbearing Nominally Reinforced Masonry (NRM) as a fourth category. Technical Design Conditions Book 1 – Technical Design Conditions for Constructions in Seismic Zones (in Albanian). 1983-7-II (1983). On the other hand, Croatia, Slovenia and recently also Serbia (RS-89/2019, 2019) have fully adopted the Eurocodes; the latter two without anything specific in their annexes for stone masonry, thus only allowing Ashlar stone masonry. (2019). All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Countries are grouped by region such as the Himalayas, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and parts of East and South Europe. The countries east of the Himalayas bordering China and extending further into Southeast Asia either have a low seismic risk, or rubble stone is not a common material for buildings, such as Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Decreto n.41658 - Safety Regulation of Constructions Against Earthquakes (in Portuguese). DTU Règles-PS-92 (2004). Building Regulations for the Municipalities of the Island of Ischia Damaged by the Earthquake of July 28, 1883 (in Italian). With amendments D1 (2011) and D2 (2014). In addition most masonry books refer to blocked rubble squared off this is somewhere between squared random rubble coursed and rough ashlar. Building Code for Quetta Municipality. For natural stone units, only “stones or blocks made of shell rock, limestones or tuffs” are allowed, but without any description of the shape or dimensions. Random Rubble Masonry Random Rubble Masonry is slightly superior to uncoursed rubble masonry. For instance, after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal it was estimated that roughly 980,000 schools and houses were damaged and destroyed throughout the country, of which over 80% took place in the rural areas, of which 95% consisted of low-strength masonry; the majority being stone with mud mortar (National Planning Commission, 2015). Zagreb: Croatian Standards Institute. World Bank (2020). ZMMYT-44 (1944). Traditionally, adobe and earthen structures were most common, with some sporadic examples of stone masonry in the Köpet Dag Mountains. Wooden floors are allowed and the code further describes the inclusion of a continuous reinforced concrete band at floor or roof level, and wire mesh reinforcements in the horizontal joints at certain intervals, whilst vertical reinforcements are recommended and only mandatory in designs with complex plan configurations. Front. RABC II-6.02-2006 (2011). It describes a maximum floor-to-floor height of 3.0 m, minimum wall thickness 0.35 m, and minimum masonry width in corners, as well as for piers, of 600 mm. Prof. S. Imanbekov (Kyrgyzstan), Prof. T. Dadayan and MEng. It is important to note that all codes are read and analyzed in their original languages by at least one (and preferably two) native speaking experts from each country; all acknowledged at the end of the paper. C193-79 (1979). Beijing: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. Moscow: State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for Construction. 2. A final table summarizes all design requirements as dictated by the national codes in which stone masonry is currently still allowed. Mortar shall not be leaner than 1:6 cement-sand ratio with a minimum compression strength of 3.0 N/mm2 at 28 days, according to the (unrevised) code NBC 109:1994 (2007) “Masonry Unreinforced.”. Tajikistan is extremely mountainous, with mountains covering 93% of its surface, of which more than half are situated above 3,000 m. Centrally located are the Pamir Mountains and all borders are surrounded by mountain ranges, such as the Hindu Kush with Afghanistan, Tian Shan with China, the Alay Mountains with Kyrgyzstan, and the Turkestan Range with Uzbekistan. Moreover, it is observed that some countries are not taking the implications of different seismic hazard levels into account. Tbilisi: Minister of Economic Development of Georgia. To address all these above-mentioned shortcomings, the authors of this paper propose a full assessment, validation, optimization and complementation of the existing knowledge, by means of the current state-of-the-art for calculating, testing and modeling. Hicyilmaz, K. (2011). After the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake, only single-story masonry buildings with light roofs were allowed in this region, either with ordinary bricks or tuff stones grinded into a parallelepiped shape (RE-09/01/n.212, 1884). RDD Construction Of R C C Culvert 3 X 4 50 M X 3 05 M And Guard Wall On Fuljhar Nala Near Village Sake Under Panchayat Aloudi Sen , Due Date: 07-01-2021 ,Tender Value: 0 ,City : Senha block, district Lohardaga., Location: Jharkhand Tender Notice 26464321 Here the main construction practices for low-rise and low-cost housing consist of natural materials such as bamboo and earth (adobe, rammed earth, wattle-and-daub), or Confined Masonry with bricks or concrete blocks. Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. Dimensions for corner masonry, piers and openings are exclusively mentioned for brick masonry; for stone masonry verification through calculations is needed. Therefore, specifications have to be given for the materials used, the laying technique, Bond or Through stones, Quoins and curing – for the ultimate strengthening of the final masonry … Prof. T. Miller (US-based codes), Y. Vorfolomeyeva (all Russian-based codes), Dr. J. Nizomov (Tajikistan), Assoc.
For the experimental program four rubble stone masonry walls (120cm×120cm×70cm) were built using traditional techniques and materials. In Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the technique is allowed, but only briefly mentioned without any further detail. Materials and Products from Natural Stone (in Russian). SP 14.13330.2018 (2018). 3.4 Maximum thickness of joint shall be 20 mm for random rubble and 10 mm for course. The earliest codes such as TJ 11-78 (1979) did not cover stone masonry, but all revisions that followed, starting with GBJ 11-89 (1993), have included a separate chapter with sections for earth, wood and stone buildings, which is still included in the most recent seismic code GB 50011-2010 (2016). – A further recommendation is to develop a stand-alone code for rubble stone masonry buildings, to avoid misinterpretation and interchange of incompatible design specifications that are meant for other techniques. The stones … Although restricted to areas with a low seismic hazard, with these clauses the Italian national codes deviate from Eurocode. SNT 2.01.08-99 (2000). Boletín Oficial del Estado n.4, January 4 of 1991, Madrid. Due to 130 years of French colonial rule, they mostly follow the older French codes such as DTU Règles-PS-92 (2004), which mentions both cut and rubble stone as a possible masonry material, but only for Confined Masonry structures. Ozcebe, G., Ramirex, J., Wasti, T., and Yakut, A. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. Random rubble masonry: 1. Gazzetta Ufficiale n.324 del 22 Dicembre 1962, Rome. It mentioned a few specifics for irregular stone masonry, such as a maximum height of 2 stories, and that the masonry must be reinforced or confined. Pakistan has never had any provisions for stone masonry, nor for low-strength masonry in general, such as in India and Nepal. (2018). Although figures were not found, it is expected that stone masonry is still practiced in the Tian Shan Mountain range at the border with China and the Alay and Turkestan ranges near Tajikistan, although to a lesser extent compared to Tajikistan. School buildings in rubble stone masonry with cement mortar in seismic areas: literature review of seismic codes, technical norms and practical manuals. RABC IV-13.01-96 (1996). Random rubble masonry foundation is ancient stone foundation method where rough, uneven stones are used to make the foundations. In 1969 (SNiP II-A.12-69∗, 1977) masonry is reduced to just 3 categories, but still with an explicit mention of rubble stone. MOJ Civil Eng. The designs were developed by SSF following general rules of thumb, as found in several practical field manuals that address “non-engineered seismic design.” The term “non-engineered” for buildings refers to “those which are spontaneously and informally constructed in various countries in the traditional manner, without any or little intervention by qualified architects and engineers in their design” (Arya, 2000). Bhutanese Architecture Guidelines. Gazzetta Ufficiale n.95 del 22 Aprile 1909, Rome. Tirana: Institute of Construction Technology Studies. Since the 1981 edition (SNiP II-7-81∗, 1989) until today just 2 categories remain, with strengths over 180 kPa and between 180 and 120 kPa. Turkmenistan has a high seismic risk at its border with Iran. 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