An influential 1995 scholarly article debuted the Modern Sexism Scale. Frustrated3. “The Prevalence, Distribution, and Mental Health Correlates of Perceived Discrimination in the United States.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. %���� Obese women in the same weight range will pay over three thousand six hundred dollars more per year in medical costs than others. ),  Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior, Vol. Went on as if nothing had happened. Pay discrimination also occurs when a difference in pay has an unlawful basis such as race or sex. “Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being in the U.S. and South Africa.” Ethnicity and Health. •    Source: Forman, T.A., Williams, D.R., and Jackson, J.S. 69-80 in Whitfield, Keith E., (ed. Your Height    g.    Your Weight    h.    Some other Aspect of Your Physical Appearance    i. Have you ever moved into a neighborhood where neighbors UNFAIRLY made life difficult for you or your family?8. 1996; 6 (1,2), 154-166.o    Bobo, L, Suh SA. “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. You were not hired for a job? How many times has this happened in the last year?______________H1d. Your Height or Weight    7. 10. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 is intended to protect employees over 40 from workplace discrimination based on age. Carefully watch what you say and how you say it.4. Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied a scholarship?12. 11. •    Developed for the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS). •    Expanded from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the MIDUS study for the YES Health Study. Please tell me how often you have experienced them during the past 12 months.Discrimination (3 items, alpha =.73) 1. Race & Society. A little4. (PROBE:  ensure that information is included about the age, gender, and race of the perpetrator).H3. The leading treatise on U.S. employment discrimination law runs to two volumes and 3,500 pages; no other country has a discrimination law treatise so long.2 By now, decades after America’s civil In this section, I am going to ask you about experiences of being treated unfairly.EmploymentFirst, I will ask you about being treated unfairly at work. Your Religion    6. This isn't like prostate cancer—nobody sees prostate cancer. ), Minority Health in America: Findings and Policy Implication From the Commonwealth Fund Minority Health Survey. (PHS) 1995 96-1214:320-325.•    Jackson, J.S. ), Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd Edition, volume 3. Your Education or Income Level. Developed by Williams, Yu, Jackson, & Anderson (1997), the 20-item Perceived Discrimination Scale measures how often people feel that others treat them badly or unfairly on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion, physical appearance, sexual orientation, or other characteristics. Pay discrimination based on an employee's membership in a protected category like race, disability, or sex, is prohibited by anti-discrimination laws. 3 Examples of Discrimination at Work. Feel that you always have to be very careful about your appearance (to get good service or avoid being harassed).3. Have you ever been UNFAIRLY prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?7. “Racial Disparities in Health.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 2011; 8: 95-113. o    McNeilly, M.D., Anderson, N.B., Armstead, C.A., Clark, R., Corbett, M., Robinson, E.L., Pieper, C.F. However, recent reports show an increase in perceived age discrimination among older employees. 2004; 11:88–94.•    Measure:  In your day-to-day life, how often do any of the following things happen to you?1. Your religion6. In addition to what we have talked about, have you ever been treated UNFAIRLY, prevented from doing something, or been hassled or made to feel inferior by teachers or classmates?Police/Courts13. Your Sexual Orientation    9. What is race discrimination, and how can it manifest in the workplace? 3. “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” Du Bois Review, 2011 8(1): 95-113.•    Rooks, Ronica., Xu, Y., Holliman, B., Williams, D.R. •    Source: Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. You were denied a bank loan? “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” Du Bois Review, 2011; 8(1): 95-113. 1997; 9:231-261. Your Sexual Orientation    10. Ethan Lazarus explained in a … Nevertheless, workplace discrimination is a real and pressing issue, and candidates get their applications sidelined or overlooked due to these factors all the time. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1997 2(3):335-351.•    Forman, T.A., Williams, D.R., and Jackson, J.S. endobj Powerless5. What do you think was the main reason for this (your most recent experience)? 1, Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications, 2004 254-259.•    Williams, D.R. (L. D. Bobo, M. L. Oliver, J. H. Johnson, A. Valenzuela, Eds.). (GO TO H5b)H1c. Talked to someone who could do something concrete about the situation. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. This includes 21 percent of male respondents and 19 percent of female respondents. For unfair reasons, have you ever not been hired for a job?3. You are treated with less courtesy than other people are.2. Oxford, Academic Press. “Racism and Health.” in Kris Heggenhougen and Stella Quah (eds.) Could you tell me more about what happened? In what month did it happen?___________________________________H5b. At any time in your life, have you ever been unfairly fired from a job or been unfairly denied a promotion?2. (Ed. “Examining the Black-White Adult Mortality Disparity: The Role of Residential Segregation.” Proceedings of the 1995 Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics. 1990; 30 (12), 1273-1281. “The Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Obesity in a Population Based Multiracial/Ethnic Adult Sample.” American Journal of Public Health, 2009 99(7):1285-1292.•    Friedman, E.M., Williams, D.R., Singer, B.H., Ryff, C.D. “Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health: The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Tried to do something about it. In addition to what we have talked about, is there any other way you have been treated UNFAIRLY AT WORK, for example, prevented from doing something or been hassled or made to feel inferior?Housing6. (CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).1. ���MZ�����q� Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied a promotion?5. Source: Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., and Anderson, N.B. 1996; 6 (1,2), 154-166. o    Bobo, L, Suh SA. Epub 2018 Feb 2. (CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).H5d. This item was retained in SWAN because it is consistent with experiences included in the original work on everyday discrimination by Essed (22, 23) and is similar to items on other scales assessing day-to-day discriminatory treatment (40, 41). Discrimination in the workplace covers any work related issues, and it is important for employers to take care that the company handbook, policies, and practices are uniform, regardless of employee race, gender, ethnicity, age, religion, or disability. “Research on Discrimination and Health: An Exploratory Study of Unresolved Conceptual and Measurement Issues” American Journal of Public Health. NOH3a. •    Adapted from NSAL for the CCAHS study. •    QuestionnaireWe are interested in your beliefs about the way other people have treated you. Expressed anger to the person who caused the problem.14. 1997 9:231-261.•    Williams, D.R., Yu, Y. and Jackson, J.S. You were denied a scholarship? A physical disability9. <>>> Some3. (If the experience happened to you, but for some reason other than discrimination, enter "0". Have you ever moved into a neighborhood where neighbors made life difficult for you or your family? Your Sexual Orientationj. x���mo�8����G �2�H��H��������)�~Pm��^���K��͐�M�"��H��G�¡������6���ã������|=���������>�\��/�f~�x���?9&�/^~`�1�Irqu����3"2E��h�SU��ۃW��?�}��kBҿ�ů�N�?��ziN3.���/��%����a@��wMswSu����$9���4YA�5ݡ�(C���Ϩ���y+� �i��dZВh&h�Z����"����2������׫)~�L_�g�v��z�?�y������ZN�Ӑ��lk��T�7�W����BS�J�3rNI*�/i�����MZ�WUʲ�_�B#5�ړ�^pʠ)l��6�ׇ�\Mx�Th^�R�ݢ�{Q3ρm�!2�6r{1[�T��ȋ 93-130.•    Williams, D.R. 1. (CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).RECOMMENDED OPTIONS1. “Race, Place, and Discrimination.” In Carol Gardner (ed. Gender discrimination survey questions template is created to collect responses from employees at workplace to know if they have experienced gender discrimination. What do you think was the main reason for this experience? How did this experience make you feel? Have you ever been UNFAIRLY physically threatened or abused by the police?15. It's unlawful to discriminate against an employee based on age if they're older … “Race and Health: Basic Questions, Emerging Directions.” Annals of Epidemiology. 2. •    Follow-up question for each item:  number of times in your life?S15. The scale had a single factor solution. Was your worst experience of ____________________ also your MOST RECENT experience?Response Categories:     YES -   GO TO H5e. Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied a bank loan?18. 11. A physical disability2. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 23–30. •    Measure: Here are some more situations that can arise at work. Race The Civil Rights Act of 1964 states that employers cannot discriminate against workers or … Tried to forget that it had happened. Prayed about the situation. •    Williams, D.R., and Collins, C.  “Reparations:  A Viable Strategy to Address the Enigma of African-American Health.” American Behavioral Scientist, 2004 47 (7):977-1000.•    Williams, D.R. Hargraves and K.S. Have you ever been unfairly discouraged by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education?5. Pp. •    Source: Kessler, R.C., Mickelson, K., and Williams, D.R. Male symbol and female symbol on the scale Gender Equality, Adult, Balance, Weight Scale workplace discrimination stock illustrations. “Racism and Health: A Research Agenda.” Ethnicity and Disease, 1996 6(1,2):1-6.•    Williams, D.R. How often are you UNFAIRLY given the jobs that no one else wants to do?2. & Lepisto, E.M. “The perceived racism scale: A multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans.” Ethnicity and Disease. Have you ever been unfairly denied a bank loan?9. Each measure is … <> If you think discrimination doesn’t exist in the workplace, you simply don’t know what it is. 79.9 million of these obese individuals are men, and 74.8 of them are women. 9. 8. “Racial Harassment/Discrimination.” 2007 Pp. Felt that you brought it on yourself. Recommended response categories for all items:    Almost everyday    At least once a week    A few times a month    A few times a year    Less than once a year    Never•    Follow-up Question (Asked only of those answering “A few times a year” or more frequently to at least one question. Criticized or lectured yourself. How did you respond to this experience? Increased your efforts to make things work. JAI Press. 1996; 6 (1,2), 154-166.o    Krieger, N. “Racial and gender discrimination: Risk factors for high blood pressure?” Social Science and Medicine. 2000; 527-564., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, •    Measure: Here are some situations that can arise at work. 4. How certain are you that __________ was the main reason for this experience?Absolutely positive        Pretty sure    Somewhat doubtful    Very doubtfulH5e. What do you think was the main reason for this experience?a. Can you tell me if any of the following has ever happened to you:1. How well do you feel you have dealt up to now with this experience and any changes or problems which may have resulted from it?VERY WELL        QUITE WELL        SOMEWHAT WELL        NOT TOO WELL. How many times in your life have you been discriminated against in each of the following ways because of such things as your race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion, physical appearance, sexual orientation, or other characteristics? “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. •    Ren, X.S., Amick, B., Williams, D.R. 71-100.•    Brown, T.N., Williams, D.R., Jackson, J.S., Neighbors, H.W., Torres, M., Sellers, S.L., and Brown, K.T. 1990; 30 (12), 1273-1281. 3. You are treated with less respect than other people are.3. How often are you watched more closely than other workers?3. 2000; 527-564., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, •    Developed for the 1995 Detroit Area Study (DAS). “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. (L. D. Bobo, M. L. Oliver, J. H. Johnson, A. Valenzuela, Eds.). Pp. Sleazy businessman harassing a shocked female coworker. You were prevented from renting or buying a home in the neighborhood you wanted? We extrapolated our results to get a sense of the scale and effects of the age discrimination scourge across the nation. •    Ahmed, A., Mohammed, S., Williams, D.R., “Racial discrimination & health: Pathways & evidence.” Indian Journal of Medical Research, 2007 126:21-30.•    Paradies, Y. , Williams, D.R. Together, studies show that obese people s… •    Source : Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. And it transcends every aspect of a person's life because everybody sees this. 2000 41:314-332. In the spring of 2019, at the request of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center (HSOAC) fielded a survey designed to estimate the annual prevalence of workplace harassment and discrimination at FEMA and to assess employee perceptions of leadership and workplace climate.To yield the most-meaningful and -useful data on the … At any time in your life, have you ever been UNFAIRLY fired?2. 209-243.•    Guthrie, B.J., Young, A.M., Williams, D.R., Boyd, C.J., and Kintner, E.K., “African American Girls’ Smoking Habits and Day-to-Day Experience with Racial Discrimination. Worked harder to prove them wrong.4. “Racial Disparities in Health.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 2011; 8: 95-113. Have you ever been unfairly stopped, searched, questioned, physically threatened or abused by the police?5. Please tell me how often you have experienced them during the LAST 12 MONTHS.1. Scared7. 13. Results: The 5-item scale was significantly associated with poorer health, greater internalized homonegativity, reporting workplace bullying, SGM isolation, gender expression discrimination, and having filed a formal complaint of workplace discrimination. “Chronic discrimination predicts higher circulating levels of E-selectin in a national sample: the MIDUS study.”  Brain Behavior and Immunity, 2009 23:684-692.•    Shariff-Marco, S., Gee, G.C., Breen, N., Willis, G., Reeve, B.B., Grant, D., Ponce, N.A., Krieger, N., Landrine, H., Williams, D.R., Alegria, M., Mays, V.M., Johnson, T.P., Brown, E.R. Realized that you brought it on yourself.5. 1996; 6 (1,2), 154-166.o    Krieger, N. “Racial and gender discrimination: Risk factors for high blood pressure?” Social Science and Medicine. Follow-up questions after each item:1. How often do your coworkers direct racial or ethnic slurs or jokes at you?8. (If more than one main reason, circle all that apply.)1. 1997 7(5):322-333.•    Clark, R., Anderson, N.B., Clark, V.R., and Williams, D.R. •    Haas, J.S., Earle, C.C., Orav, J.E., Brawarsky, P., Neville, B.A., Williams, D.R. 6. That article began ominously in the first sentence of its abstract: Prejudice and discrimination against women has become increasingly subtle and covert (N. V. Benokraitis & J. R. Feagin, 1986). How many times has this happened in your ENTIRE LIFE?1. You were denied or provided inferior service by a plumber, car mechanic, or other service provider? For unfair reasons, have you ever not been hired for a job? “Segregation and Mortality: The Deadly Effects of Racism.” Sociological Forum. Due to population ageing, older workers will make up a larger proportion of the workforce. 1990; 30 (12), 1273-1281.H6. Major Experiences of Discrimination (NSAL and SASH version)•    Adapted from 1995 DAS and MIDUS•    Source: Williams, D.R., González, H.M., Williams, S., Mohammed, S.A., Moomal, H, Stein, D.J. Not at allS17. Your Age    5. 1 0 obj “Race and Health: A Multidimensional Approach to African American Health.” Benjamin C. Amick, Sol Levin, Diana Chapman Walsh, and Alvin R. Tarlov (eds. 2011 6(11):e27636.•    Williams, D.R., John, D., Oyserman, D., Sonnega, J., Mohammed, S.A., Jackson, J.S. A lot2. Studies show that obese men between the ages of twenty and sixty four pay over a thousand dollars more every year on their medical costs than do people of a healthy weight. Collins (eds. 2001 11:800-816.•    Williams, D.R. Sad4. Your Ancestry or National Origins    b. “Discrimination, Symptoms of Depression, and Self-rated General Health among African American Women in Detroit:  Longitudinal Results from Eastside Village Health Worker Partnership.”  American Journal of Public Health, 2006 96(7):1265-1270.•    Borrell, L. N., Kiefe, C.I., Williams, D.R., Diez-Roux, A.V., Gordon-Larsen, P.  “Self-Reported Health, Perceived Racial Discrimination, and Skin Color in African Americans in the CARDIA Study.”  Social Science and Medicine, 2006 63:1415-27.•    Richman, L.S., Kohn-Wood, L.P., Williams, D.R., “The Role of Discrimination and Racial Identity for Mental Health Service Utilization.” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2007 26(8): 960-981.•    Oyserman, D., Uskul, A.K., Yoder, N., Nesse, R.M., Williams, D.R., “Unfair Treatment and Self-Regulatory Focus.”  Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 2007 43:505-512.•    Williams, D.R., González, H.M., Williams, S., Mohammed, S.A., Moomal, H, Stein, D.J. •    This scale was used in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Study of Stress and Health study (SASH). Response scale for all items:    Once a week or more………1    A few times a month………2    A few times a year………3    Less than once a year………4    Never…………………5, •    In dealing with these day-to-day experiences that you just told me about, how often do you:1. A little4. 1995 Pp. JAI Press. “Race, Stress, and Mental Health: Findings from the Commonwealth Minority Health Survey.” In C. Hogue, M.A. •    Source:  Sternthal, M.J., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. How often have you been unfairly humiliated in front of others at work?Response scale for all items:    Once a week or more………1    A few times a month………2    A few times a year………3    Less than once a year………4    Never…………………5. Think of your WORST experience of ____________________. NOH5. Age discrimination is the adverse treatment of a worker based on their age. GLOBAL FOLLOW UP QUESTION AFTER ALL ITEMS: What was the main reason for the discrimination you experienced? Have you ever been unfairly denied a promotion?4. FOR EACH YES RESPONSE TO THE ABOVE QUESTIONS, HERE ARE THE FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS: 1. The Scope of Age Discrimination. “Perceived Discrimination and Stigma Towards Children Affected by HIV/AIDS and Their HIV-Positive Caregivers in Central Haiti,”  AIDS Care, 2010 22(2):803-815.•    Shariff-Marco, S., Breen, N., Landrine, H., Reeve, B.B., Krieger, N., Gee, G.C., Williams, D.R., Mays, V.M., Ponce, N.A., Alegria, M. “Measuring Everyday Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in Health Surveys.” Du Bois Review, 2011 8(1): 159-177.•    Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. People act as if they think you are not smart.5. “Perceived discrimination and mental health disorders:  The South African Stress and Health study.”  South African Medical Journal, 2009 99(5):383-389.•    Hunte, H., Williams, D.R. Your ethnicity or nationality5. How often are you unfairly humiliated in front of others at work?Harassment (3 items, alpha =.84)1. “Discrimination, Race, and Health.” 1998  Proceedings of the Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics and Data User’s Conference, July 28-31, 1997, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., CD Rom #1. 1994 109(1):26-41.•    Williams, D.R. 7. “Online Racial Discrimination and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents.” Journal of Adolescent Health, 2008 43:565-569. ), Perspectives on Social Problems. People act as if they think you are dishonest.7. 2004; 11:88–94. In addition to what we have talked about, have you ever been treated UNFAIRLY, prevented from doing something, or been hassled or made to feel inferior in getting into or staying in a neighborhood that you wanted?Education10. “Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health: The Interplay Between Discrimination and Socioeconomic Status.” Ethnicity and Disease. •    A 10th item was added to the original scale: “You are followed around in stores.”•    This scale was used in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Study of Stress and Health study (SASH) •    Source: Williams, D.R., González, H.M., Williams, S., Mohammed, S.A., Moomal, H, Stein, D.J. endobj and Collins, C. “U.S. “Discrimination and Mental Health among Black and White Adults in the YES Health study.” Race and Social Problems, 2011 3(3):182-196.•    Kim, S.S., Williams, D.R.” Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey.” PLoS ONE. “Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa: Findings from the                                                                                                                                               South Africa Stress and Health Study.”  Social Science and Medicine, 2008 67: 441-452.•    Tynes, B., Giang, M.T., Williams, D.R., and Thompson, G.N. Your age2. “Racial and Spatial Relations as Fundamental Determinants of Health in Detroit.”  Milbank Quarterly, 2002 80(4): 677-707.•    Williams, D.R., Neighbors, H.W., and Jackson, J.S. 1999 40(3):208-230.•    QuestionnaireS13. “The Prevalence, Distribution, and Mental Health Correlates of Perceived Discrimination in the United States.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 116 (September/October 2001): 404-416. "Victimi-ation studies"refer to surveys, polls or interviews that ask respondents whether they have experienced discrimination in the workplace. Some other reason for discrimination (Please specify:)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________S16. At work, when different opinions would be helpful, how often is your opinion not asked for?3. Your Gender    c.    Your Race    d.    Your Age    e.    Your Religionf. A lot2. For unfair reasons, do you think you have ever not been hired for a job?3. Your Gender    3. Smith Fawzi, M.C. 2000 2:117-131.•    Schulz, A., Williams, D., Israel, B., Becker, A., Parker, E., James, S., and Jackson, J. How often do others assume that you work in a lower status job than you do and treat you as such?11. •    Expanded from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the MIDUS study for the YES Health Study•    Source: In Press  Williams, D.R., John, D., Oyserman, D., Sonnega, J., Mohammed, S.A., Jackson, J.S. 321-326  in George Fink (ed. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles. •    Source: In Press  Williams, D.R., John, D., Oyserman, D., Sonnega, J., Mohammed, S.A., Jackson, J.S. )# OF TIMES IN YOUR LIFE1. “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. Your Race    4. 8. Have you ever been UNFAIRLY discouraged by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education?11. Can you tell me if each of the following has ever happened to you:1. 2000 5: 243-268.•    Williams, D.R. What do you think was the main reason for your worst experience? Ashmore (eds. �̾e�m*b��B���Dz|YI�.��yƽ>ݯ��%$��� ˆM�&H�.��s̖�]�X�ƚ�=��O��i;�僐2O�}y��G�����3�A��7 cC[�K`_$�F��(�~XAgg�P� ���Nk�9}BSto��r^/��]��pϴ���t?��}�E�H(�� &*s��(� E��5ؗ0��yCTi�T���X��3Ko�R���_/�2l�*��UI��$�tohj� ����:l�G$?��M���o�p!�ĸ����?�\�&���|w(Z3�7��k����v�l�. Your height or weight7. Online. Did that happen in the last 12 months? You were hassled by the police9. •    Schulz, A.J., Williams, D.R., Israel, B.L., and Lempert, L.B. You try to prepare for possible insults from other people before leaving home.2. The same as the original scale. You are called names or insulted.9. Talked to someone about how you were feeling. Have you ever been UNFAIRLY suspected or accused of doing something illegal by the authorities?16. “A Mixed-Methods Approach to Developing a Self-Reported Racial Ethnic Discrimination Measure for Use in Multiethnic Health Surveys.”  Ethnicity & Disease, 2009 19(Autumn):447-453.•    Surkan, P.J., Mukerjee, J.S., Williams, D.R., Eustache, E., Louis, E., Jean-Paul, T., Lambert. “Race, Health, and Health Care.”  St. Louis University Law Journal, 2003 48(1):  13-35.•    Williams, D.R., “Racism and Health.”  2004 Pp. Do you think you  have ever been unfairly fired or denied a promotion?2. 1997; 2(3):335-351.•    Studies of Validity and Reliabilityo    Krieger N., Smith K., Naishadham D., Hartman C., Barbeau E.M. “Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health.” Social Science & Medicine. Man touching woman's knee. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2011 173(11): 1240-1243. Your ethnicity………1    Your gender………2    Your race………3    Your age………4    Your religion………5    Your physical appearance………6    Your sexual orientation………7    Your income level/social class………8    Other Specify __________ 2.